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Chapter 15 The Muslim Empires 1450 - 1800 Section One The Ottoman Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 The Muslim Empires 1450 - 1800 Section One The Ottoman Empire."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 15 The Muslim Empires

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5 Section One The Ottoman Empire

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7 Rise of the Ottoman Turks Built power in the northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsula Expanded westward into the Balkans Claimed the title of sultan and built a strong military

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9 Rise of the Ottoman Turks Janissaries an elite military guard, converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan Elite military guard & mastery of firearms

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11 Expansion of the Empire The Ottoman empire expanded into Western Asia, North Africa and additional lands in Europe

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13 The Fall of Constantinople Mehmet II, leader of the Ottomans His forces laid siege to Constantinople May 29, 1453 the Ottoman’s breached the walls of the city Sacked the city for three days

14 Western Asia & Africa Istanbul the new name for Constantinople Sultan Selim I leader to the Ottoman Turks between 1514 & 1517 Took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt & Arabia

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16 Western Asia & Africa Jerusalem, Makkah & Madinah, holy cities of Islam Pashas, central government appointed officials who collected taxes, maintained law & order & were directly responsible to the Sultan’s court in Constantinople

17 Europe Ottomans conquest of Europe was stopped by the Hungarians at the Danube Valley Turks were defeated in Vienna, Austria in 1529 Ottoman fleet was destroyed by the Spanish at Lepanto in 1571

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19 Europe Conquered territories administered through local rulers

20 The Nature of Ottoman Rule “gunpowder empire” conquerors who unified the regions largely based on its mastery of the technology of firearms Sultan, head of the Ottoman system, was the supreme authority in both a political and a military sense

21 The Nature of Ottoman Rule Harem, private domain of the sultan, “sacred place”, place were his wives resided grand vizier, a chief minister, led the meetings of the council

22 Religion in the Ottoman World Sunni Muslims Ottoman sultans had claimed the title of caliph Ulema, group of religious advisers that administered the legal system & schools for educating Muslims

23 Religion in the Ottoman World Islamic law and customs were applied to all Muslims in the empire Generally tolerant of non- Muslims

24 Ottoman Society Divided by occupation Four main occupational groups Peasants, artisans, merchants & pastoral peoples Women subject to restrictions, but their position was somewhat better (inherit property, seek divorce)

25 Problems in the Ottoman Empire Empire began to lose some of its territory Sultans became less involved in government Training of officials declined Local officials grew corrupt & taxes rose

26 Problems in the Ottoman Empire Constant wars depleted the imperial treasury Corruption and palace intrigue grew Exchange of Western & Ottoman ideas and customs

27 Ottoman Art Flourishing production of pottery, rugs, silk & other textiles; jewelry & arms & armor Greatest contribution was in architecture Sinan, architect, built 81 mosques Modeled after Hagia Sophia

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29 Ottoman Art Flourishing of textiles & rugs Factories produced silks for walls hangings, sofa covers & court costumes

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33 Section Two: The Rule of the Safavids

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35 Rise of the Safavid Dynasty *Safavids lived in Persia into Central Asia *Ardent Shiite Muslims Sunnis & Shiites were the two major groups in the Islamic religion *Shah Ismail founder of the Safavid Dynasty

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37 Rise of the Safavid Dynasty *Shah, king of the Persian state *Shah Ismail ordered the massacre of Sunni Muslims when he conquered Baghdad in 1508 Selim I, the Ottoman sultan defeated the Safavids at a major battle near Tabriz

38 Rise of the Safavid Dynasty Used the Shiite faith as a unifying force Shah claimed to be the spiritual leader of all Islam Capital moved from Tabriz to Isfahan

39 Glory & Decline *Shah Abbas ruled the Safavids from 1588 to 1629 Strengthened his army Fought the Ottomans over lost land 1612, signed a peace treaty

40 Glory & Decline *Orthodoxy, traditional religious beliefs *Persian women played a major role in society, but also forced into seclusion.

41 Glory & Decline Afghan peoples invaded & seized the capital of Isfahan Turks took advantage of the situation to seize territories along the western border Persia sank into a long period of *anarchy (lawlessness and disorder)

42 Political & Social Structures Persia under the Safavids was a mixed society *Safavids ruled, but a majority of the people were Persian *Political system organized in the shape of a pyramid *Government appointments based on merit rather than birth

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44 The Role of the Shah Safavid rulers were eagerly supported by Shiites, who believed that the founder of the empire (Shah Ismail) was a direct successor of the prophet Muhammad

45 Economy & Trade Trade & manufacturing activity Horse or camel caravans Resting places for travelers & roads clear of thieves & bandits Found trade with Europe difficult

46 Safavid Culture Science, medicine & mathematics *Planned city with wide spaces and a sense of order Palaces, mosques & bazaars

47 Safavid Culture *Imaginative metalwork, elaborate tiles & delicate glass vessels *Silk weaving *Carpet weaving, Persian carpets Riza-I-Abbasi, Persian painter

48 religious, political, and economic leader Shah IsmailShah Abbas

49 Section Three: The Grandeur of the Moguls

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51 The Mogul Dynasty Located on the Indian subcontinent *Hindu & Muslim kingdoms *Babur founder of the Mogul dynasty Forces used advanced weapons, including heavy artillery

52 The Mogul Dynasty *Babur captured Delhi & established his power in the plains of North India

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54 The Fortress of Gwalior in India greatly impressed Babur

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56 The Reign of Akbar Akbar, Babur grandson used *heavy artillery Was a successful negotiator Highly centralized government Semi-independent states Known for his humane character

57 The Reign of Akbar *Religious tolerance Interested in other religions & tolerated Hindu practices Tolerant in his administration of government *Zamindars, local officials who kept a portion of the taxes paid by peasants in lieu of a salary

58 The Reign of Akbar Exported textiles, tropical food products, spices and precious stones

59 Decline of the Moguls Shah Jahan leader of the Moguls between 1628 & 1658 Expanded the boundaries of the empire Failed to deal with growing domestic problems Inherited a nearly empty treasury

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61 Decline of the Moguls Shah Jahan’s military campaigns & expensive building projects put a heavy strain on the imperial finances & compelled him to raise taxes Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan’s son, controversial Mogul ruler

62 Decline of the Moguls Aurangzeb, attempted to eliminate India’s social evils Forbade sutte & levying of illegal taxes Suttee, cremating a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre Reversed religious tolerance

63 The British in India Established trading forts by 1650 British ships carried Indian- made cotton goods to East Indies, where they were traded for spices Attracted rivals in the French

64 The British in India Sir Robert Clive, chief representative for the East India Company’s power in India Fought the French, imprisoned in the “Black Hole of Calcutta” and underground prison 1757, defeated the Mogul-led army

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66 The British in India Collected taxes from lands in the area surrounding Calcutta Offended both their Indian allies and the local population, who were taxed heavily to meet the expenses of the East India Company

67 Society & Daily Life in Mogul India Blending of Hindu and Muslim influences Women played an active role Fought in battle, owned land & took part in business Hindu practices remained unchanged by Mogul rule

68 Mogul Culture Brought Persian & Indian influences together Symbolized by the Taj Mahal Built in memory of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal

69 Mumtaz Mahal

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71 Mogul Culture “Akbar style” combined Persian with Indian motifs Used perspective and lifelike portraits

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