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History 2313 5 th Century Greece War and Society.

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Presentation on theme: "History 2313 5 th Century Greece War and Society."— Presentation transcript:

1 History th Century Greece War and Society

2 I. Paths to Power: up to Persian Wars ( BC) Sparta terms: oligarchy, Council of Elders, Apella, helots, Spartan Creed Athens terms: tyranny, democracy, archon, deme, ostracism II. Peloponnesian War (first “world war”?) Delian League/Athenian empire First War between Athens and Sparta ( ) Pericles, General of Athens ( ) “Thirty Years Peace” for Athens and Sparta The Great Peloponnesian War ( )

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4 History 2313 Paths to Power Corinth, Sparta & Athens Variations on the Polis

5 Corinth

6 Corinth: Acropolis

7 Corinth and Tyranny Role of Tyrants Role of Tyrants Tyranny of Cypselus in 657 BC Tyranny of Cypselus in 657 BC Maintenance of Tyranny Maintenance of Tyranny –Cypselus (d. 625 BC) –Difficulty of Periander (d. 585 BC) –End of Corinthian Tyranny

8 Sparta

9 Sparta’s Oligarchy Reforms of Lycurgus (6 th century BC) Reforms of Lycurgus (6 th century BC) 2 hereditary kings 2 hereditary kings Council of Elders (Garousia) Council of Elders (Garousia) (28 men over 60 years of age) Five Ephors (annually elected magistrates) Five Ephors (annually elected magistrates) Assembly of Equals (free adult male citizens- Homoioi): mess mates (sysstion) Assembly of Equals (free adult male citizens- Homoioi): mess mates (sysstion)

10 Spartan Society Militarism-a reaction to external threats Messenian War leads to reforms of Lycurgus Community comes before individual homoioi (equals) & perioikoi (“those living around” or outsiders) Slave Society (helots) Fear of revolts always a problem Society based on service to the state

11 Spartan Ideals For men The Spartan Creed Warrior cult Ares as patron Military education of boys Military service of men

12 Spartan Ideals For women Artemis as Patron Goddess Female Education Athleticism Motherhood

13 Edgar Degas, The Young Spartans (ca. 1860)

14 Athens: The Great Experiment

15 5 th Century Athens

16 Athens and Democracy Solon (639-c.550 BC) “Lifting of Burdens” Solon (639-c.550 BC) “Lifting of Burdens” 4 Grades of Citizens Archonship for first 2 Grades Council of 400 Assembly of Appeals Cleisthenes (570-c.507 BC) Cleisthenes (570-c.507 BC) deme: village (democracy – residence) 3 Tribes to 10 Tribes electing 50 reps each Council of 500

17 The Golden Age of Athens 5 th Century BC Athens and Sparta after the Persian Wars Athens and Sparta after the Persian Wars The Delian League and Athenian Prosperity The Delian League and Athenian Prosperity –Delos: 478 BC Athenian Leadership Athenian Leadership –Themistocles –Anti-Sparta sentiment & building of fortifications –Ostracism-471 BC

18 A ballot to ostracize Themistocles (471 B.C.) Ostraka: shard of pottery

19 Cimon ( BC) Cimon ( BC) –son of Miltiades (hero at Marathon) Pro-Sparta sentiment Pro-Sparta sentiment –Aid to Sparta in 464 BC –Earthquake and Helot rebellion Fall of Cimon 461 BC Fall of Cimon 461 BC –His ostracism Rise and Fall of Cimon

20 Pericles General (strategon) General (strategon) –( BC) Expansion and contraction of Athenian democracy Expansion and contraction of Athenian democracy Funeral oration summarizes Athenian values Funeral oration summarizes Athenian values

21 Advance of Democracy 1) Abolition of property qualifications for officeholding 2) Payment for those sitting on juries, council, public offices Retreat of Democracy Restriction of citizenship only to children whose parents both could claim to be Athenian citizens

22 Athens’ fortification walls Naxos’s attempt to withdraw from the Delian League (467 BC), Thasos (465 BC) and Athenian coercion Treasury of the Delian League moved to Athens (454 BC) Universal Coinage and Courts An alliance or an empire....? Delian League as Athenian Empire

23 Thucydides (c BC) Athenian general Extensive military experience History of the Peloponnesian War Role of Pericles’s Funeral Oration Values of Athenian societyValues of Athenian society Model for othersModel for others Duties of citizen men and womenDuties of citizen men and women

24 The Peloponnesian War ( B.C.)

25 First War between Athens and Sparta ( BC) Pericles, General of Athens ( ) 446: “Thirty Years Peace” for Athens and Sparta The Great Peloponnesian War ( ) Plague and death of Pericles (430) Athen‘s Failed Sicilian expedition ( ) Persian Involvement and Spartan Victory (404) The Peloponnesian Wars

26 End of Peloponnesian Wars Athen‘s failed Sicilian expedition (415–413 BC) Persian involvement and Spartan victory at Aegospotamie (404 BC)

27 The Peloponnesian War ( B.C.)

28 Consequences of the War Athens loses  Fortifications  Fleet  Empire Sparta wins, yet  Loses respect within Greek world  Difficulty maintaining navy  Helot problem  Population loss  Power Vacuum within Greek World  Weakening of Polis


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