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5th Century Greece War and Society History 2313.

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Presentation on theme: "5th Century Greece War and Society History 2313."— Presentation transcript:

1 5th Century Greece War and Society History 2313

2 War and Society I. Paths to Power: up to Persian Wars (490-480 BC)
Sparta terms: oligarchy, Council of Elders, Apella, helots, Spartan Creed Athens terms: tyranny, democracy, archon, deme, ostracism II. Peloponnesian War (first “world war”?) Delian League/Athenian empire First War between Athens and Sparta ( ) Pericles, General of Athens ( ) “Thirty Years Peace” for Athens and Sparta The Great Peloponnesian War ( )


4 Paths to Power Corinth, Sparta & Athens
Variations on the Polis History 2313

5 Corinth

6 Corinth: Acropolis

7 Corinth and Tyranny Role of Tyrants Tyranny of Cypselus in 657 BC
Maintenance of Tyranny Cypselus (d. 625 BC) Difficulty of Periander (d. 585 BC) End of Corinthian Tyranny

8 Sparta

9 Sparta’s Oligarchy Reforms of Lycurgus (6th century BC)
2 hereditary kings Council of Elders (Garousia) (28 men over 60 years of age) Five Ephors (annually elected magistrates) Assembly of Equals (free adult male citizens-Homoioi): mess mates (sysstion)

10 Spartan Society Militarism-a reaction to external threats
Messenian War leads to reforms of Lycurgus Community comes before individual homoioi (equals) & perioikoi (“those living around” or outsiders) Slave Society (helots) Fear of revolts always a problem Society based on service to the state

11 Spartan Ideals For men The Spartan Creed Warrior cult Ares as patron
Military education of boys Military service of men

12 Spartan Ideals For women Artemis as Patron Goddess Female Education
Athleticism Motherhood

13 Edgar Degas, The Young Spartans (ca. 1860)

14 Athens: The Great Experiment

15 5th Century Athens

16 Athens and Democracy Solon (639-c.550 BC) “Lifting of Burdens”
4 Grades of Citizens Archonship for first 2 Grades Council of 400 Assembly of Appeals Cleisthenes (570-c.507 BC) deme: village (democracy – residence) 3 Tribes to 10 Tribes electing 50 reps each Council of 500

17 The Golden Age of Athens 5th Century BC
Athens and Sparta after the Persian Wars The Delian League and Athenian Prosperity Delos: 478 BC Athenian Leadership Themistocles Anti-Sparta sentiment & building of fortifications Ostracism-471 BC

18 Ostraka: shard of pottery
A ballot to ostracize Themistocles (471 B.C.)

19 Rise and Fall of Cimon Cimon (510-451 BC)
son of Miltiades (hero at Marathon) Pro-Sparta sentiment Aid to Sparta in 464 BC Earthquake and Helot rebellion Fall of Cimon 461 BC His ostracism

20 Pericles General (strategon) (457-430 BC)
Expansion and contraction of Athenian democracy Funeral oration summarizes Athenian values

21 Advance of Democracy Retreat of Democracy
1) Abolition of property qualifications for officeholding 2) Payment for those sitting on juries, council, public offices Retreat of Democracy Restriction of citizenship only to children whose parents both could claim to be Athenian citizens

22 Delian League as Athenian Empire
Athens’ fortification walls Naxos’s attempt to withdraw from the Delian League (467 BC), Thasos (465 BC) and Athenian coercion Treasury of the Delian League moved to Athens (454 BC) Universal Coinage and Courts An alliance or an empire....?

23 Thucydides (c.460-401 BC) Athenian general
Extensive military experience History of the Peloponnesian War Role of Pericles’s Funeral Oration Values of Athenian society Model for others Duties of citizen men and women

24 The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.)

25 The Peloponnesian Wars
First War between Athens and Sparta ( BC) Pericles, General of Athens ( ) 446: “Thirty Years Peace” for Athens and Sparta The Great Peloponnesian War ( ) Plague and death of Pericles (430) Athen‘s Failed Sicilian expedition ( ) Persian Involvement and Spartan Victory (404)

26 End of Peloponnesian Wars
Athen‘s failed Sicilian expedition (415–413 BC) Persian involvement and Spartan victory at Aegospotamie (404 BC)

27 The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.)

28 Consequences of the War
Athens loses Fortifications Fleet Empire Sparta wins, yet Loses respect within Greek world Difficulty maintaining navy Helot problem Population loss Power Vacuum within Greek World Weakening of Polis

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