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Mesopotamia Egypt Middle East. Mesopotamia Tigris & Euphrates Rivers –Fertile  flooding Sumer  1 st advanced civilization –12 villages develop into.

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Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamia Egypt Middle East. Mesopotamia Tigris & Euphrates Rivers –Fertile  flooding Sumer  1 st advanced civilization –12 villages develop into."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mesopotamia Egypt Middle East

2 Mesopotamia Tigris & Euphrates Rivers –Fertile  flooding Sumer  1 st advanced civilization –12 villages develop into City-States Independent, self-governing community, city w/ surrounding farmlands Ziggurat-- of social & economic life

3 Sumer Wheel & sail –Take advantage of water systems –Transportation & trade Bazaar—common marketplace; easier to barter Cuneiform –Wedge-shaped

4 Sargon the Great 2350 BC 1 st emperor (Akkad) Conquered several areas— brought under control Created 1 st EMPIRE

5 Hammurabi Mesopotamian Assimilation of cultures— elements continue Code of Hammurabi –1 st written & published set of laws –Women’s rights? some

6 Mesopotamian Religion & Law Polytheism —belief in more than 1 god –Sumerian city-states believed they were owned by the gods –Gods chose rulers & protected city- states –Much superstition

7 Mesopotamia Egypt Middle East

8 Mesopotamia Tigris & Euphrates Rivers –Fertile  flooding Sumer  1 st advanced civilization –12 villages develop into City-States Independent, self-governing community, city w/ surrounding farmlands Ziggurat-- of social & economic life

9 Sumer Wheel & sail –Take advantage of water systems –Transportation & trade Bazaar—common marketplace; easier to barter Cuneiform –Wedge-shaped

10 Sargon the Great 2350 BC 1 st emperor (Akkad) Conquered several areas— brought under control Created 1 st EMPIRE

11 Mesopotamian Religion & Law Polytheism —belief in more than 1 god –Sumerian city-states believed they were owned by the gods –Gods chose rulers & protected city- states –Much superstition

12 Mesopotamians & Scholarship Mathematics & Astronomy Multiplication/division Geometry –System based on 60 –360 degrees in –60 minutes in an hour Based on star observations 12 month calendar based on cycles of the moon

13 How do we know all this stuff? The BEHISTUN ROCK Found in 1840s in western Iran 3 types of writing –Persian –Babylonian –Elamite Henry Rawlinson

14 Egypt Hired scribes kept records Hieroglyphics—sacred carving “Learn to write, for this will be of greater advantage to you than all the other trades.” How to translate?

15 Rosetta Stone Napoleon’s Army Engineers— kinds of writing –Hieroglyphics –Greek –Recent Egyptian script

16 Other guys in the Middle East Hittites Phoenicians Hebrews Assyrians Babylonians Lydians Persians

17 Phoenicians Main contributions: Sea vessels Sailors, shipbuilders, merchants Purple cloth Clear glass Writing system based on early alphabet

18 Hebrews Monotheism Hebrew religion— Judaism Torah—1 st 5 books of the Old Testament Prophets— messengers from God

19 Assyrians Skilled/ruthless warriors Iron weapons War chariots Battering rams Terrorists Built Ninevah Adopted religion, art, literature of Mesopotamia

20 Babylonians Nebuchadnezzar— enslaved Hebrews Conquered much of Fertile Crescent Hanging Gardens of Babylon Rebuilt ziggurat of Marduk Rebuilt Babylon into fabulous city

21 Lydians Main contribution Used coins for trade instead of direct barter Standard weight of gold, silver, other metals Molded into disks Create MONEY ECONOMY— economic system based on the use of money What is money?

22 Persians 547 BC Cyrus the Great Largest empire in the ancient world Released Hebrews from captivity Conquered rest of Fertile Crescent Conquered Asia Minor

23 Persia Darius the Great Extended Persia into North Africa Failed in conquest of Greece 490 BC However: Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Judea, Phoenicia, Hittites, & Lydians under 1 rule BIG AREA—how to control?

24 Persia Main contributions Improved/extended roads Unified use of coins Unified weights & measures Government officials spoke same language— Aramaic Postal system (pony express) Zoroastrianism—humans have choice between doing good & doing evil; good will triumph at the end of the world (destroyed by fire)

25 Mesopotamians & Scholarship Mathematics & Astronomy Multiplication/division Geometry –System based on 60 –360 degrees in –60 minutes in an hour Based on star observations 12 month calendar based on cycles of the moon

26 How do we know all this stuff? The BEHISTUN ROCK Found in 1840s in western Iran 3 types of writing –Persian –Babylonian –Elamite Henry Rawlinson

27 Egypt Society based on Nile River—3 seasons –Flood –Drying out to pre- flood levels –Rainless time before flood Transportation Adjacent deserts protects Egypt from enemies

28 Egypt Religion –Polytheistic –Amon-Re –Life after death (mummification & belongings) 3100 BC Menes formed 1 kingdom Memphis—capital Established 1 st dynasty—family of rulers

29 Important!! Pharaohs individual power weakened from time to time, but the empire always continued. This changed when Alexander the Great invaded in 300BC.

30 Constants to remember: Empire starts, empire builds and increases, empire decays from within (corrupt rulers, natural disasters, etc.), empire dies. The culture remains!

31 Egypt Hired scribes kept records Hieroglyphics—sacred carving “Learn to write, for this will be of greater advantage to you than all the other trades.” How to translate?

32 Rosetta Stone Napoleon’s Army Engineers— kinds of writing –Hieroglyphics –Greek –Recent Egyptian script

33 Other guys in the Middle East Hittites Phoenicians Hebrews Assyrians Babylonians Lydians Persians

34 Hittites Main contribution Iron weapons –Kept secret about 200 years –Empire decline IRON AGE  today

35 Phoenicians Main contributions: Sea vessels Sailors, shipbuilders, merchants Purple cloth Clear glass Writing system based on early alphabet

36 Hebrews Monotheism Hebrew religion— Judaism Torah—1 st 5 books of the Old Testament Prophets— messengers from God

37 Assyrians Skilled/ruthless warriors Iron weapons War chariots Battering rams Terrorists Built Ninevah Adopted religion, art, literature of Mesopotamia

38 Babylonians Nebuchadnezzar— enslaved Hebrews Conquered much of Fertile Crescent Hanging Gardens of Babylon Rebuilt ziggurat of Marduk Rebuilt Babylon into fabulous city

39 Lydians Main contribution Used coins for trade instead of direct barter Standard weight of gold, silver, other metals Molded into disks Create MONEY ECONOMY— economic system based on the use of money What is money?

40 Persians 547 BC Cyrus the Great Largest empire in the ancient world Released Hebrews from captivity Conquered rest of Fertile Crescent Conquered Asia Minor

41 Persia Darius the Great Extended Persia into North Africa Failed in conquest of Greece 490 BC However: Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Judea, Phoenicia, Hittites, & Lydians under 1 rule BIG AREA—how to control?

42 Persia Main contributions Improved/extended roads Unified use of coins Unified weights & measures Government officials spoke same language— Aramaic Postal system (pony express) Zoroastrianism—humans have choice between doing good & doing evil; good will triumph at the end of the world (destroyed by fire)


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