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© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee A Comprehensive History of India Lecture – 5 December 4, 2011 Empire Building Maharaj Mukherjee
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Time Line Studied So Far Early Inhabitants of India? –Hunter Gatherers – Years ago Earliest Civilization in the World? –Fertile Crescent – Years ago Earliest Civilization in India – City States –Indus Valley Civilization – Years ago Arrival of Aryans – Years ago Time of Ramayana – City States – Years ago Time of Mahabharata – Start of Empire Building – Years ago Time of Buddha and Mahavira –2500 Years ago or about 600 BC Empire Building 500 BC onwards
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Food For Thought
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Focus on Universal Values Eight Fold Path of Buddhism: 1. Right View 2. Right Intention 3. Right Speech 4. Right Action 5. Right Livelihood 6. Right Effort 7. Right Mindfulness 8. Right Concentration THE JAIN CODE OF CONDUCT The five vratas (vows): 1. Non-violence in thought, word and deed, 2.To seek and speak the truth, 3.To behave honestly and never to take anything by force or theft, 4.To practice restraint and chastity in thought, word and deed, 5.To practice non-acquisitiveness. These same set of values are the glues for most societies in the world
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Growth of Human Society Family A group of related people Any dispute is resolved by the head of the family Interest of the family Tribes – Mostly a collection of families of related people No division of labor Any dispute is resolved by the tribe head’s man/woman Interest of the tribes – start of a value system City States: One or two cities with villages around it People have different skills Rulers, Teachers, Traders, Farmers People belong to same language or culture Resolving dispute is done by Rule of Law Needs well established value system
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Growth of Human Society Empires: Several states dominated by a single state Diverse cultures, languages and practices Rule of Law Based on Values Nation
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Nanda Maurya SaatVahana Kushana Gupta Harsha Pala Rashtrakuta Chola Sultaan Mughala British
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Aryan Migration to India and Europe The Persian Empire – 500 BC The Greek Civilization – 400 BC
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee The Persian Empire The First Empire in the World Peak Time Around 500 BC Extended from Indus Valley to Greece Capital at Parsua Also known as Parthian Empire
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Persian Civilization’s Influence on Indian History World’s First Codified Justice System Influence on Current Indian Justice system: Indian justice system was originally modeled after the Persian system Words borrowed from Persian: Ukil – Lawyer Dalil – Documents Hakim – The Judge Hazir – Being Present in Court In More Recent Times: Persians are one of the last migrants to India They helped build the city of Bombay The Tata Group has a strong contribution to Indian industrialization
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee The Greek Civilization Around 500 BC Greeks and Persians fought many wars Greek Contributions to the World (400 BC – 200 BC) : Philosophers and Thinkers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Mathematicians and Scientists Euclid, Archimedes Suggested Class Projects: Learn about the Greek Thinkers and their contributions.
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Time of Alexander (350 BC) The Greek Prince to completely vanquish the Persian Empire and Build a Greek Empire in its Place at the age of 23. But his empire completely broke up after his death. Extended from Indus Valley to Greece Many Later Indian Empires were built based on the principles and techniques of both Greek and Persian Empires The Greek Invasion Opened Door for Trade between Europe and India Indian Art, Literature and Science were influenced by Greek Thinking Many Greeks kept record of their Indian adventures
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee The Mauryan Empire Founded by Chandra Gupta Mauyra –Around 300 BC Extended by his Grand Son Ashoka –The most influential Emperor in Indian History Mauryan Empire Covered Almost the whole of India and Beyond Their Capital was Patali Putra – The Present Day Patna, Bihar India as a Nation is still influenced by the principles of this era.
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee The Mauryan Empire
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Chandra Gupta Maurya His origin is completely unknown He learned war techniques from Greeks and had many Greek soldiers and generals in his army He also sent his ambassadors to many Greek kingdoms He has his trusted advisor Chanakya (also known as Kautilya) Chankya authored the book of Artha-Sashtra –Elaborate principles of how an empire to be ruled and protected At his later life he converted to Jainism and left his empire to his son Bindusar (Father of Ashoka)
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Ashoka – Priya Darshi Ashoka – The Handsome Came to power after some struggle Later on converted to Buddhism He set his empire on a principle of welfare and benefits for his subjects He followed the principle of balance as ordained in the Buddhist Principles He extended his physical empire to almost whole of India and beyond. But his actual influence was felt all over the world – through the spread of Buddhist Principles
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Spread of Buddhism Buddhism spread across the world more in time of Ashoka than in any other time in the history He sent his own son and daughter to spread the word of Buddha
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Influence of Ashoka in Modern India Seal of India -Ashoka Stambha (The Piller of Ashoka) Indian Flag – At the Center there is the Dharma Chakra or the Chakra of Ashoka
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Quiz What was the first empire of the World? –The Persian Empire Who vanquished the Persian Empire and Built a Greek Empire in its Place? –Alexander How far did the Persian and the Greek Empire extend to? –From the Indus Valley to Greece Who founded the Maurya Empire? –Chandra Gupta Maurya Who is the most influential emperor of Indian History? –Ashoka Priya Darshi What is the grand seal of India? –Ashoka Stambha or the Piller of Ashoka What is in the Center of the Indian Flag? –The Dharma Chakra or the Ashoka Chakra
© 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Project for Parents and Students Think and Discuss: –Why did the Persian Empire and the Mauryan Empire lasted for more than 300 years and the Greek empire built by Alexander did not last more than a decade?
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