Presentation on theme: "The Spread of Islam Preview Main Idea/ Essential Questions"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Spread of Islam Preview Main Idea/ Essential Questions Islam after Muhammad’s DeathMap: Spread of IslamThe Umayyad DynastyThe Abbasid DynastyThe End of UnityQuick Facts: The End of Unity
2 The Spread of Islam Main Idea Essential Questions: After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread.Essential Questions:How did Islam evolve after Muhammad’s death?What were key events of the Umayyad dynasty?What changes occurred under the Abbasid dynasty?What led to the end of the caliphate’s unity?
3 Islam after Muhammad’s Death The death of Muhammad in 632CE presented a challenge for the Muslim community. Who would lead the group and keep it unified? The answer affected the faith’s spread and its future.Muhammad had not named successorNo clear candidateAbu Bakr, close companion, early convert, chosen leader, called caliph, “successor”Muhammad’s SuccessorsAbu Bakr focused on bringing back Bedouin tribesBuilt strong Arab fighting forces to keep tribes under controlReunified Arabia, led forces northPrioritiesAbu Bakr’s successor Umar, expanded Muslim rule rapidly637CE early victory against Persian forces in Iraq642CE victory over Persian Empire completeExpansion of Territory
4 More Expansion More Expansion Empire Internal Conflict and Division After Iraq and Persia the Arab army faced the wealthy Byzantine Empire to westByzantines first lost Damascus, Syria and Jerusalem639CE, The Byzantine province of Egypt fell; 642CE, rest of Nile Valley under Arab ruleEmpireOnly 10 years after Muhammad’s death, followers had created empireConquests continued under later caliphs661CE, The caliphate stretched from northern Africa in the west to Persia in the EastInternal Conflict and DivisionDeep conflict within Muslim leadership – began with choice of Abu Bakr as caliphSome had supported Muhammad’s cousin, Ali644CE, Ali lost again, to Uthman, supported by powerful Mecca clan Umayyad
5 Civil WarUmayyads had been Muhammad’s enemies, converted reluctantly, were unpopularUthman was killed by rebelsAli became caliph, but troubles had just begunCivil war broke out between Ali’s forces and UmayyadAli killed, Umayyad retook controlAli’s TroublesMost Muslims accepted Umayyad caliph, Mu’awiyaCalled Sunnis, “followers of the Sunna,” or “way of the Prophet”Ali’s supporters refused to go along with Umayyads.Became known as the Shi’a, “party of Ali”Sunnis and Shias
6 Shi’a believed God had specially blessed Ali’s descendants The Shi’a and ImamsShi’a believed God had specially blessed Ali’s descendantsAli’s descendants = Muhammad’s true heirsShi’a called each of Ali’s successors imamImam means “leader”For the Shi’a, only imams can interpret the Qur’an.
7 Conflict Further Division Conflict deepened between Sunni and Shi’a after deaths of Mu’awiya & Ali.Many thought Yazid, Mu’awiya’s son and successor was not a good Muslim.Muhammad’s grandson, Husayn, led rebellion against Yazid.Husayn’s forces were defeated in battle at Karbala in Iraq.Further DivisionHusayn was killed while holding his infant son – battle became known as the martyrdom of Husayn; The split between Sunni, Shi’a has remained bitter.Third group developed within Islam—the SufisSufis seek mystical, personal connection with God, using range of practices including breath control and meditation in ritualsWhirling Dervish
9 What was the result of the succession conflict? Answer: Two different Muslim groups emerged—the Sunni and the Shi’a
10 Under the Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread. The Umayyad DynastyUnder the Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread.However, internal problems weakened the Umayyads, and led to their fall.Umayyads strengthened their rule after death of HusaynAchievements:Established Arabic as official languageMade coinage uniform throughout empireBegan first great work of Islamic architecture, Dome of the Rock in JerusalemContinued ExpansionArmies conquered territory to borders of China, Indus River Valley, to eastTook northern Africa, most of Spain, to westConquests spread Muslim faith, while allowing religious freedom for People of the Book; some restrictions, taxes for Non-Muslims howeverMilitary Conquests
11 Ruling the Empire End of the Umayyads Rebellion Umayyads strengthened central government as the caliphate grew in sizeArab Muslims became ruling class, with power, privilege unavailable to those they conqueredCreation of privileged class conflicted with strong Muslim ideal of equalityWars over succession were also upsetting to many faithful who were unhappy with emphasis on political ambitionDispleasure with Umayyads widespreadShi’a continued oppositionAlso unrest among conquered people, some Arab tribesUmayyads weakened by discontent – time was ripe for rebellionEnd of the UmayyadsAbbasids, led by descendant of Muhammad’s uncle, united many Umayyad opponents by appearing to support their causesAbbasids wiped out Umayyads in series of battles, late 740sCaliphate entered Abbasid dynastyRebellion
12 What events brought about the end of the Umayyad dynasty? SequenceWhat events brought about the end of the Umayyad dynasty?Answer: A family called the Abbasids took advantage of discontent with the Umayyads and established a new caliphate.
13 The Abbasid Dynasty Baghdad Persian Influence Government Abbasids relocated capital of caliphate; rulers lived in splendorChose Baghdad, on Tigris River, in present-day IraqPersian InfluenceMove to Baghdad was the beginning of end of Arab domination of the Muslim worldAbbasids adopted Persian style of governmentGovernmentRulers were cut off from peopleCaliph hidden behind screen in throne room, could not be seenUsed Persian officials; vizier, deputy, oversaw affairs of stateChange in IslamNature of Islam changedAbbasids invited all to join in, turned Islam into universal religion and attracted people of many cultures
14 A Changing Culture Funding for Change Importance of Trade Trade helped fund cultural achievementMost prominent Abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid, helped bring culture to great heights, 786CE to 809CESupport of scholarship helped produce lasting achievements of Islamic arts and sciencesFunding for ChangeIslam spread through tradeMuslim traders journeyed from end to end of caliphate, exchanging goods and informationExchange brought Islam to West Africa, Southeast AsiaImportance of TradeFather of Chemistry/ Father of Optics
15 How did the Abbasids differ from the Umayyads? ContrastHow did the Abbasids differ from the Umayyads?Answer: The Abbasids focused more on prosperity and cultural advancement than on empire expansion.
16 Challenges from Europe The End of UnityAs early as the 800s, Abbasid political power weakened. By the 900s, a number of small, independent states broke away from the caliphate.European Christians weakened Muslim ruleChristian armies began to drive Muslims out of Spain, 1000sEuropean Christians began CrusadesWanted to make Holy Land Christian, won at firstMuslims eventually retook JerusalemChallenges from Europe969CE, serious threat from Fatimid Dynasty established in EgyptClaimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter FatimahFrom Egypt, they controlled Mediterranean and Red SeaDisrupted Abbasid tradeFatamids were soon more rich and more powerful than Abbasids.Problems from Egypt
17 Seljuk Turks and Others There were many non-Arabs among peoples of the caliphate, including Turks1055CE, Turkish Seljuks rose to power and took control of BaghdadSeljuks were Sunni Muslims, supported Abbasid caliphWar Against Byzantine EmpireSeljuks defended Abbasids against Fatimids and went to war against Byzantine Empire – defeated Byzantines at Battle of ManzikertSeljuks would go on to create their own empireMamluks and Mongols1200s, Mamluks took power in Egypt and Syria1258CE, Mongols destroyed Baghdad, killed Abbasid caliph; caliphate finishedIslam was still a vital force and spread to India, Central and Southeast Asia