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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 1 The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran Section 1: Physical Geography Section 2: The Arabian Peninsula.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 1 The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran Section 1: Physical Geography Section 2: The Arabian Peninsula."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 1 The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran Section 1: Physical Geography Section 2: The Arabian Peninsula Section 3: Iraq Section 4: Iran CHAPTER 9

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 2 Objectives: What landforms and rivers can be found in the Persian Gulf area and the interior of Southwest Asia? What landforms and rivers can be found in the Persian Gulf area and the interior of Southwest Asia? How does the region’s physical geography affect its climates and biomes? How does the region’s physical geography affect its climates and biomes? What natural resources does the region have? What natural resources does the region have? Section 1 Physical Geography

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 3 Physical Features: Saudi Arabia— Arabian Peninsula (largest sand desert in the world) Saudi Arabia— Arabian Peninsula (largest sand desert in the world) Iraq—wide plain of Mesopotamia, with two great rivers, Tigris and Euphrates Iraq—wide plain of Mesopotamia, with two great rivers, Tigris and Euphrates Iran—Zagros Mountains, Elburz Mountains, and Kopet-Dag Mountains, Great Salt Desert Iran—Zagros Mountains, Elburz Mountains, and Kopet-Dag Mountains, Great Salt Desert Persian Gulf – countries of this region form a semi-circle around this Gulf Persian Gulf – countries of this region form a semi-circle around this Gulf Section 1 Physical Geography

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 4 Effects of physical geography on climates and biomes: Mountains provide water to valleys below by blocking moist winds and causing rain. Mountains provide water to valleys below by blocking moist winds and causing rain. Saudi Arabian lowlands are hot but humid, due to nearby sea. Saudi Arabian lowlands are hot but humid, due to nearby sea. Higher elevations have cooler temperatures. Higher elevations have cooler temperatures. Trees are common only in mountains. Trees are common only in mountains. Section 1 Physical Geography

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 5 Key natural resources in the region are oil and water. Water, a scarce resource: Water, a scarce resource: Tigris and Euphrates are critical to Iraq. Tigris and Euphrates are critical to Iraq. Farmers in northern Iran depend on rain; others rely on irrigation. Farmers in northern Iran depend on rain; others rely on irrigation. Desert areas may have oases (oasis – wet fertile area in a desert that forms underground water and bubbles to the surface) and wells (Groundwater in wells is often fossil water). Desert areas may have oases (oasis – wet fertile area in a desert that forms underground water and bubbles to the surface) and wells (Groundwater in wells is often fossil water). Fossil Water – water that is not being replaced by rainfall Fossil Water – water that is not being replaced by rainfall Desalinization of seawater is possible for wealthy countries. Desalinization of seawater is possible for wealthy countries. Section 1 Physical Geography

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 6 Key natural resources in the region are oil and water. Key natural resources in the region are oil and water. (continued) Oil, plentiful and valuable: Oil, plentiful and valuable: Persian Gulf oil reserves (amount of oil the country has) are the world’s largest. Persian Gulf oil reserves (amount of oil the country has) are the world’s largest. Oil exports bring great wealth to the countries that have oil fields. Oil exports bring great wealth to the countries that have oil fields. Most of the oil reserves are located near the shores of the Persian Gulf Most of the oil reserves are located near the shores of the Persian Gulf Section 1 Physical Geography

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 7 Objectives: How have peoples, empires, and Islam affected the history of the Persian Gulf area and interior Southwest Asia? How have peoples, empires, and Islam affected the history of the Persian Gulf area and interior Southwest Asia? What are the major features of the region’s cultures? What are the major features of the region’s cultures? Section 2 History and Culture

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 8 Various peoples and empires have shaped the region’s history. Sumerians built the first civilization and cities in the Fertile Crescent. Sumerians built the first civilization and cities in the Fertile Crescent. Akkadians created the first real empire in the area, around 2350 B.C. Akkadians created the first real empire in the area, around 2350 B.C. Persians established a powerful empire around 550 B.C. Persians established a powerful empire around 550 B.C. Greeks and Romans arrived later. Greeks and Romans arrived later. Section 2 History and Culture

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 9 Various peoples and empires have shaped the region’s history. Various peoples and empires have shaped the region’s history. (continued) The rise of Islam had a major impact, beginning in the late A.D. 500s. The rise of Islam had a major impact, beginning in the late A.D. 500s. Mongols arrived in the 1200s. Mongols arrived in the 1200s. Safavid Persians built a flourishing empire in the 1500s. Safavid Persians built a flourishing empire in the 1500s. Ottoman Turks also ruled the region in the 1500s. Ottoman Turks also ruled the region in the 1500s. Section 2 History and Culture

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 10 Cultural features: Islam is the unifying element. Islam is the unifying element. Arabs are the major group in the region; Arabic is the main language. Arabs are the major group in the region; Arabic is the main language. Kurds live in borderlands of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. Kurds live in borderlands of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. Cultural diversity is more complex in Iran and Afghanistan. Cultural diversity is more complex in Iran and Afghanistan. Most Iranians are Persians; other groups include Baloch, Bakhtiari, and Hazara. Most Iranians are Persians; other groups include Baloch, Bakhtiari, and Hazara. Pashtun are the largest group in Afghanistan. Pashtun are the largest group in Afghanistan. Section 2 History and Culture

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 11 Objectives: On what activities do the region’s economies depend? On what activities do the region’s economies depend? What are the region’s cities like? What are the region’s cities like? What are some important issues in the region today? What are some important issues in the region today? Section 3 The Region Today

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 12 Economic activities: oil and gas production—key activity oil and gas production—key activity agriculture—mainly subsistence, some commercial agriculture—mainly subsistence, some commercial nomadic herding nomadic herding traditional crafts traditional crafts limited manufacturing limited manufacturing Section 3 The Region Today

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 13 Urban environments: ancient cities ancient cities old sections—twisting streets, bazaars, mosques old sections—twisting streets, bazaars, mosques newer sections—modern buildings, wide avenues, traffic newer sections—modern buildings, wide avenues, traffic Section 3 The Region Today

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON World Geography Today HOLT 14 Important issues: oil wealth—how used oil wealth—how used power and authority—democracy versus control by a few power and authority—democracy versus control by a few role of Islam—maintenance of Islamic traditions and laws role of Islam—maintenance of Islamic traditions and laws Section 3 The Region Today


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