2Mughal Empire 1526-1857 Babur r. 1526-1530 Akbar r. 1556-1605 Auranwzeb r1707Mughal Empire
3Mughal EmpireThe Mughal Empire was an imperial power which ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-19th centuries.At the height of its power, around 1700, it controlled most of the subcontinent and parts of what is now Afghanistan.Mughal means Mongol in Arabic
4Early Mughal HistoryEstablished around 1504 by Timurid prince, Babur, descendent of Ghenghis Khan and great-grandson of Timur or TamerlaneIn 1526, Babur defeated last of the Delhi Sultans to secure his new kingdom using artillery and horse-mounted archersBabur’s descendents will go onto to rule the subcontinent for next several hundred years
5Babur (r )Muslim emperor from Central Asia [Uzbek] but cultural lineage was PersianDrew on support from Turkic and Persian peoples with very diverse multiethnic armyWas helped by many to overthrow Ibrahim Lodh, the last Delhi Sultanate, who was despised by many
6Mongol TraditionsAs the Mongols had done elsewhere, the Mughals adopted Islam and the Persian cultureThe first Mughal King, Babur, established the Mughal Dynasty in regions spanning parts of present-day Pakistan and IndiaUpon invading the region, the Mughals inter- married with local royalty and formed a Turko- Persian and Mongol DynastyCharacterized by religious toleranceOnly one of the Mughal emperors, Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan’s son, would utilize state persecution of non-Muslims
7Akbar (r )Akbar the Great was only 13 when he became emperorMany military victories and expansion of empireTolerant attitude towards other religions discussions of faith was commonSecular emperor
8Abd allah Musawwir. The Meeting of the Theologians, c Abd allah Musawwir. The Meeting of the Theologians, c , miniature from a manuscript secular art/ a beggar outside of a mosque/ profusion of patterns
9Shah Jahan (r. 1628-1658) Persian word meaning “King of the World” Golden Age of the MughalsArchitectureThreats from Deccan, Bengal, and NorthwestCentralized court and artwork used to express state ideology
10Shah Jahan (r )Shah Jahan probably left his greatest legacy by his building projects and palace renovationsTaj Mahal, Red Fort, Shalimar GardensPeacock Throne, now located in IranPatron of fine artsRomance and serenity
11Taj Mahal (Agra, India), Muhgal (Mongol) Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal/ architectural metaphor for paradise and the Throne of God/ mausoleum with minarets/ reflecting pool/ symmetrical balance/ a planned black mausoleum for Shah Jahan
12Aurangzeb (r.1658-1707) Alamgir I aka Conqueror of the Universe Murdered brother, imprisoned father, and abandoned religious tolerance of predecessorsSunni FundamentalistSharia LawDestruction of Hindu and Sikh Temples*Reintroduction of Non-Muslim taxes
13Aurangzeb (r )Expansion of Empire but continuous wars helped to drain resourcesReligious intolerance and lack of economic and political leadership will begin the decline of the Mughal DynastySuccessors of Aurangzeb will be unable to maintain the wars and the economic links to keep the Mughals viableIslamic laws and wars against Hindus and Sikhs helped to unify these groups against the Muslim Mughals
14Mughal EmpireMost notable of Babur’s descendents were Akbar, his grandson and Shah Jahan, Akbar’s grandsonOne of the most recognized buildings in the world was commissioned by Shah JahanThe Taj Mahal in Agra as a tomb for his wife
15Mughal Golden AgeThe classic period of the Empire starts with the accession of Akbar the Great in 1556 and ends with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, although the Empire continued for another 150 years.During this period, the Mughal Empire was marked by a highly centralized administration connecting the different regions of India. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, date to this period.
16Mughal DeclineMost decisively the series of wars against the Pashtuns in Afghanistan weakened the very foundation upon which Mughal military rested.The Pashtuns formed the backbone of the Mughal army and were some of the most hardened troops and seriously undermined the Mughal miltary apparatus when they resisted changes in tax and administrative systems.The powers of Europe were challenging themselves to the game of who could conquer these foreign lands and exploit their riches and wealth for their own personal gain.The Mughal throne auctioned its agricultural crown lands to the Dutch or the British for revenue extraction and the end was near.
18The Persian EmpireThe Saffavid Dynasty hailed from the region of Azerbaijan.The Saffavid Shah Ismail I overthrew the White Sheep (Akkoyunlu) Turkish rulers of Persia to found a new native Persian empire.Ismail expanded Persia to include all of present-day Azerbaijan, Iran, and Iraq, plus much of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
19Shah Ismail I (r )Shah of Iran and the founder of the Safavid Dynasty which survived until 1736Isma'il started his campaign in Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, a Twelve Shia militant religious order and unified all of Iran by 1509Full conversion from Sunni to Shia
20The Persian EmpireIsmail's expansion was halted by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514War with the Ottomans became a fact of life in Safavid Iran.Sunni versus Shia IslamTurk v. Persian?
24Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami (Isfahan, Iran), c Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami (Isfahan, Iran), c. 1354, glazed mosaic tilework
25The Persian EmpireThe Safavids were followers of Shi'a Islam, and under them Persia (Iran) became the largest Shi'a country in the Muslim world, a position Iran still holds today.Under the Safavids, Persia enjoyed its last period as a major imperial power.In 1639, a final border was agreed upon with the Ottoman Empire which delineates the border between the Republic of Turkey and Iran and also that of between Iraq and Iran, today.
26Persia and EuropeThroughout the Middle Ages, the natural philosophy and mathematics of ancient Greeks were furthered and preserved within the Muslim world.During this period, Persia became a centre for the manufacture of scientific instruments, retaining its reputation for quality well into the 19th century.In 1722, the Safavid state collapsed. That year saw the first European invasion of Persia since the time of Heraclius: Peter the Great, Emperor of Imperial Russia, invaded from the northwest as part of a bid to dominate central Asia. Ottoman forces accompanied the Russians, successfully laying siege to Isfahan.The Russians conquered the city of Baku and its surroundings. The Turks also gained territory. However, the Safavids were severely weakened, and that same year (1722), the Afghans launched a bloody battle in response to the Safavids' attempts on trying to forcefully convert them from Sunni to Shi'a sect of Islam. The last Safavid shah was executed, and the dynasty came to an end.
27The Persian EmpirePersia found relative stability in the Qajar dynasty, ruling from 1779 to 1925, but lost hope to compete with the new industrial powers of EuropePersia found itself sandwiched between the growing Russian Empire in Central Asia and the expanding British Empire in India.Each carved out pieces from the Persian empire that became Bahrain, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Georgia and Uzbekistan, amongst other previous provinces.Although Persia was never directly invaded, it gradually became economically dependent on Europe. The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 formalized Russian and British control over the north and south of the country, respectively, where Britain and Russia each created a "sphere of influence.”