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Chapter 3 Classical and Hellenistic Greece Chapter 3 Classical and Hellenistic Greece Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Delian League From 478 B.C.E., Greeks led by Athens moved against Persia Aim of the Delian League was to free all Greeks under Persian rule and sack Persian lands for compensation Forerunner of Athenian Empire Persians driven from Europe and Aegean cleared of pirates Leadership of Cimon Accepted democratic constitution of Clisthenes Gained popularity for military successes against Persia and friendly relations with Sparta Replaced by Pericles Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The First Peloponnesian War (ca. 460–445 B.C.E.) Athens vs. Sparta Early Athenian dominance 449 B.C.E., Athens ends war with Persia 445 B.C.E., Thirty Years’ Peace Athens gives up mainland possessions outside Attica Sparta recognizes Athenian Empire Spartan hegemony on land, Athenian hegemony on Aegean Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Athenian Empire From alliance to empire Athens kept one-sixtieth of Delian League’s revenues Lands ringing Aegean Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
(b)(a) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Athenian Democracy Under Pericles, freest government yet No more class restrictions on archonship Citizenship limited to those men with two Greek parents Popular assembly approves all decisions Popular court judiciary No standing army or police force Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Women Excluded from most aspects of public life, controlled by men in private sphere Responsibility of woman to produce male heirs for oikos—household Contrast between real life vs. myth and drama Aspasia Companion of Pericles Assertive and well-respected in Greek intellectual circles Treated better than most any woman of the time Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Slavery Chattel slavery rare at first, but began to increase around 500 B.C.E. Worked on farms, in mines Liberation of slaves was common Slavery based not on racist ideology but military prowess In 406 B.C.E. Athenians released all slaves of military age and granted citizenship to those who would fight in an ongoing war Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Religion in Public Life Participating in religious life was a matter of patriotism and good citizenship Acting against religious beliefs was akin to an act against the state Merciless punishments for blasphemies Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Great Peloponnesian War (432–404 B.C.E.) Corcyra-Corinth dispute Sparta refuses to arbitrate dispute with Athens, essentially insisting on armed conflict Peloponnesian League vs. Athenian Empire Athenian naval disaster ensues after ill-conceived invasion of Sicily Thucydides: naval leader, historian Persia aids Sparta, Athenian subject states rebel Athenian Empire dismantled 404 B.C.E. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
404–338 B.C.E: Struggle for Leadership Among Greek States Spartan Hegemony Athenian leadership briefly replaced by Spartan Continuing intermittent conflict with Persia Thebes and recovered Athens ally against Sparta in two wars Theban Hegemony Conflicts with Sparta and reborn Athenian Empire Greeks weakened by two centuries of internal warfare Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Classical Greek Culture Athenian Golden Age—between Persian & Peloponnesian wars Arts & letters inspired by creative tension: Greek pride vs. fear of overreaching (hubris vs. nemesis) Individual vs. society Attic tragedy—Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides Buildings like the Acropolis honored the greatness of Greek civilization Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Philosophy Same humanistic focus as in art and architecture Parmenides, Zeno: reality is fixed and unchanging, change is illusory Empedocles: four basic elements: fire, water, earth, air Atomist theory: atoms as smallest units of matter Materialism vs. idealism Sophists received pay for teaching rhetoric, dialectic, and argumentation Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Philosophy (cont.) Socrates (469–399 B.C.E.) Dialectical method 399 B.C.E., put to death for bringing new gods into the city and corrupting the youth Plato (429–347 B.C.E.) Student of Socrates; first systematic philosopher Founded the Academy in Athens Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) Student of Plato; interest in biology Tutored young Alexander the Great Founded the Lyceum Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
The Hellenistic World Three-century expansion of Greek culture through Mediterranean & Asia Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Macedonian Conquest Philip of Macedon (r. 359–336 B.C.E.) Conquest of Greece, 338 B.C.E. (Athens under Demosthenes) League of Corinth—formed to invade Persia under Philip Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Alexander the Great Alexander III (356–323 B.C.E.) Took power at 20 Conquered Egypt and Persian Empire, to India Vast Persian treasury released to economic advantage Died of illness at 33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Alexander’s Successors Ptolemy I, founder of Egyptian dynasty ending in 30 B.C.E. with death of Cleopatra Seleucus I, founder of Mesopotamian Seleucid Dynasty Antigonus I, founder of Antigonid Dynasty in Asia Minor & Macedon Economic pressures fostered class conflicts which weakened Greek unity Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Hellenistic Culture Macedonian conquest ended Greek independence and the central role of the polis Philosophy (Athens) Epicureanism—life of withdrawn happiness possible through reason Stoicism Founded by Zeno Aim of humans is the virtuous life, lived in accordance with natural law Divine reason, the guiding principle of nature: Logos Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Hellenistic Culture (cont.) Alexandria, Egypt—great center of learning under Ptolemies; museum, library Euclid: plane & solid geometry Archimedes: geometry Astronomy: heliocentric theory of the solar system (minority view) Eratosthenes: geographer Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
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