Presentation on theme: "The Spread of Islam Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus"— Presentation transcript:
1The Spread of Islam Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Islam after Muhammad’s DeathMap: Spread of IslamThe Umayyad DynastyThe Abbasid DynastyThe End of UnityQuick Facts: The End of Unity
2The Spread of Islam Main Idea Reading Focus After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread.Reading FocusHow did Islam evolve after Muhammad’s death?What were key events of the Umayyad dynasty?What changes occurred under the Abbasid dynasty?What led to the end of the caliphate’s unity?
3Islam after Muhammad’s Death The death of Muhammad in 632 presented a challenge for the Muslim community. Who would lead the group and keep it unified? The answer affected the faith’s spread and its future.Muhammad had not named successorNo clear candidateAbu Bakr, close companion, early convert, chosen leader, called caliph, “successor”Muhammad’s SuccessorsAbu Bakr focused on bringing back bedouin tribesBuilt strong Arab fighting forces to keep tribes under controlReunified Arabia, led forces northPrioritiesAbu Bakr, successor Umar, expanded Muslim rule rapidly637 early victory against Persian forces in Iraq642 victory over Persian Empire completeExpansion of Territory
4More Expansion More Expansion Empire Internal Conflict and Division After Iraq, Persia, Arab army faced wealthy Byzantine Empire to westByantines first lost Damascus, Syria, Jerusalem639, Byzantine province of Egypt fell; 642, rest of Nile Valley under Arab ruleEmpireOnly 10 years after Muhammad’s death, followers had created empireConquests continued under later caliphs661, caliphate stretched from northern Africa in west to Persia in EastInternal Conflict and DivisionDeep conflict within Muslim leadership, began with choice of Abu Bakr, caliphSome had supported Muhammad’s cousin, Ali644, Ali lost again, to Uthman, supported by powerful Mecca clan Umayyad
5Civil WarUmayyads had been Muhammad’s enemies, converted reluctantly, were unpopularUthman killed by rebelsAli became caliph, but troubles had just begunCivil war broke out between Ali’s forces, Umayyad; Ali killed, Umayyad retook controlAli’s TroublesMost Muslims accepted Umayyad caliph, Mu’awiyaCalled Sunnis, “followers of the Sunna,” or “way of the Prophet”Ali’s supporters refused to go along with Umayyads.Became known as the Shia, “party of Ali”Sunnis and Shias
6Shia believed God had specially blessed Ali’s descendants The Shia and ImamsShia believed God had specially blessed Ali’s descendantsAli’s descendants, Muhammad’s true heirsShia called each of Ali’s successors imamImam means “leader”For the shia, only imams can interpret the Qur’an.
7Conflict Further Division Conflict deepened between Sunni, Shia after deaths of Mu’awiya, AliMany thought Yazid, Mu’awiya’s son, successor, not a good MuslimMuhammad’s grandson, Husayn, led rebellion against YazidHusayn, forces defeated in battle at Karbala, IraqFurther DivisionHusayn killed while holding infant son, battle became known as the martyrdom of Husayn; split between Sunni, Shia has remained bitterThird group developed within Islam—the SufisSufis seek mystical, personal connection with God, using range of practices including breath control and meditation in rituals
9What was the result of the succession conflict? Find the Main IdeaWhat was the result of the succession conflict?Answer(s): Two different Muslim groups emerged—the Sunni and the Shia
10The Umayyad Dynasty Continued Expansion Military Conquests Under the Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread. Internal problems weakened the Umayyads, though, and led to their fall.Umayyads strengthened rule after death of HusaynAchievements:Established Arabic as official languageMade coinage uniform throughout empireBegan first great work of Islamic architecture, Dome of the Rock in JerusalemContinued ExpansionArmies conquered territory to borders of China, Indus River Valley, to eastTook northern Africa, most of Spain, to westConquests spread Muslim faith, while allowing religious freedom for People of the Book; some restrictions, taxes for Non-Muslims howeverMilitary Conquests
11Ruling the Empire End of the Umayyads Rebellion Umayyads strengthened central government as caliphate grew in sizeArab Muslims became ruling class, with power, privilege unavailable to those they conqueredCreation of privileged class conflicted with strong Muslim ideal of equalityWars over succession also upsetting to many faithful, unhappy with emphasis on political ambitionDispleasure with Umayyads widespreadShia continued oppositionAlso unrest among conquered people, some Arab tribesUmayyads weakened by discontent, time ripe for rebellionEnd of the UmayyadsAbbasids, led by descendant of Muhammad’s uncle, united many Umayyad opponents by appearing to support their causesAbbasids wiped out Umayyads in series of battles, late 740sCaliphate entered Abbasid dynastyRebellion
12What events brought about the end of the Umayyad dynasty? SequenceWhat events brought about the end of the Umayyad dynasty?Answer(s): A family called the Abbasids took advantage of discontent with the Umayyads and established a new caliphate.
13The Abbasid Dynasty Baghdad Persian Influence Government Abbasids relocated capital of caliphate; rulers lived in splendorChose Baghdad, on Tigris River, in present-day IraqPersian InfluenceMove to Baghdad beginning of end of Arab domination of Muslim worldAbbasids adopted Persian style of governmentGovernmentRulers cut off from peopleCaliph hidden behind screen in throne room, could not be seenUsed Persian officials; vizier, deputy, oversaw affairs of stateChange in IslamNature of Islam changedAbbasids invited all to join in, turned Islam into universal religion, attracted people of many cultures
14A Changing Culture Importance of Trade Funding for Change Islam spread through tradeMuslim traders journeyed from end to end of caliphate, exchanging goods and informationExchange brought Islam to West Africa, Southeast AsiaImportance of TradeTrade helped fund cultural achievementMost prominent Abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid, helped bring culture to great heights, 786 to 809Support of scholarship helped produce lasting achievements of Islamic arts, sciencesFunding for Change
15How did the Abbasids differ from the Umayyads? ContrastHow did the Abbasids differ from the Umayyads?Answer(s): The Abbasids focused more on prosperity and cultural advancement than on empire expansion.
16Challenges from Europe The End of UnityAs early as the 800s, Abbasid political power weakened. By the 900s, a number of small, independent states broke away from the caliphate.European Christians weakened Muslim ruleChristian armies began to drive Muslims out of Spain, 1000sEuropean Christians began CrusadesWanted to make Holy Land Christian, won at firstMuslims eventually retook JerusalemChallenges from Europe969, serious threat, Fatimid dynasty established in EgyptClaimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter FatimahFrom Egypt, controlled Mediterranean, Red SeaDisrupted Abbasid tradeFatamids soon richer, more powerful than AbbasidsProblems from Egypt
17Seljuk Turks and Others Many non-Arabs among peoples of caliphate, including Turks1055, Turkish Seljuks rose to power, took control of BaghdadSeljuks were Sunni Muslims, supported Abbasid caliphWar Against Byzantine EmpireSeljuks defended Abbasids against Fatimids, went to war against Byzantine Empire, defeated Byzantines at Battle of ManzikertSeljuks would go on to create own empireMamluks and Mongols1200s, Mamluks took power in Egypt, Syria1258, Mongols destroyed Baghdad, killed Abbasid caliph; caliphate finishedIslam still a vital force, spread to India, Central and Southeast Asia