Presentation on theme: "Muslim Civilization Section 2 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Islam after Muhammad’s Death Map: Spread of Islam The Umayyad Dynasty The Abbasid Dynasty."— Presentation transcript:
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Islam after Muhammad’s Death Map: Spread of Islam The Umayyad Dynasty The Abbasid Dynasty The End of Unity Quick Facts: The End of Unity The Spread of Islam
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Reading Focus How did Islam evolve after Muhammad’s death? What were key events of the Umayyad dynasty? What changes occurred under the Abbasid dynasty? What led to the end of the caliphate’s unity? Main Idea After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread. The Spread of Islam
Muslim Civilization Section 2 The death of Muhammad in 632 presented a challenge for the Muslim community. Who would lead the group and keep it unified? The answer affected the faith’s spread and its future. Muhammad had not named successor No clear candidate Abu Bakr, close companion, early convert, chosen leader, called caliph, “successor” Muhammad’s Successors Abu Bakr focused on bringing back bedouin tribes Built strong Arab fighting forces to keep tribes under control Reunified Arabia, led forces north Priorities Abu Bakr, successor Umar, expanded Muslim rule rapidly 637 early victory against Persian forces in Iraq 642 victory over Persian Empire complete Expansion of Territory Islam after Muhammad’s Death
Muslim Civilization Section 2 More Expansion After Iraq, Persia, Arab army faced wealthy Byzantine Empire to west Byantines first lost Damascus, Syria, Jerusalem 639, Byzantine province of Egypt fell; 642, rest of Nile Valley under Arab rule Internal Conflict and Division Deep conflict within Muslim leadership, began with choice of Abu Bakr, caliph Some had supported Muhammad’s cousin, Ali 644, Ali lost again, to Uthman, supported by powerful Mecca clan Umayyad Empire Only 10 years after Muhammad’s death, followers had created empire Conquests continued under later caliphs 661, caliphate stretched from northern Africa in west to Persia in East More Expansion
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Most Muslims accepted Umayyad caliph, Mu’awiya Called Sunnis, “followers of the Sunna,” or “way of the Prophet” Ali’s supporters refused to go along with Umayyads. Became known as the Shia, “party of Ali” Sunnis and Shias Umayyads had been Muhammad’s enemies, converted reluctantly, were unpopular Uthman killed by rebels Ali became caliph, but troubles had just begun Civil war broke out between Ali’s forces, Umayyad; Ali killed, Umayyad retook control Ali’s Troubles Civil War
Muslim Civilization Section 2 The Shia and Imams Shia believed God had specially blessed Ali’s descendants Ali’s descendants, Muhammad’s true heirs Shia called each of Ali’s successors imam –Imam means “leader” –For the shia, only imams can interpret the Qur’an.
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Further Division Husayn killed while holding infant son, battle became known as the martyrdom of Husayn; split between Sunni, Shia has remained bitter Third group developed within Islam—the Sufis Sufis seek mystical, personal connection with God, using range of practices including breath control and meditation in rituals Conflict Conflict deepened between Sunni, Shia after deaths of Mu’awiya, Ali Many thought Yazid, Mu’awiya’s son, successor, not a good Muslim Muhammad’s grandson, Husayn, led rebellion against Yazid Husayn, forces defeated in battle at Karbala, Iraq
Muslim Civilization Section 2
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Find the Main Idea What was the result of the succession conflict? Answer(s): Two different Muslim groups emerged—the Sunni and the Shia
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Under the Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread. Internal problems weakened the Umayyads, though, and led to their fall. Umayyads strengthened rule after death of Husayn Achievements: –Established Arabic as official language –Made coinage uniform throughout empire –Began first great work of Islamic architecture, Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Continued Expansion Armies conquered territory to borders of China, Indus River Valley, to east Took northern Africa, most of Spain, to west Conquests spread Muslim faith, while allowing religious freedom for People of the Book; some restrictions, taxes for Non-Muslims however Military Conquests The Umayyad Dynasty
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Umayyads strengthened central government as caliphate grew in size Arab Muslims became ruling class, with power, privilege unavailable to those they conquered Creation of privileged class conflicted with strong Muslim ideal of equality Wars over succession also upsetting to many faithful, unhappy with emphasis on political ambition Displeasure with Umayyads widespread Shia continued opposition Also unrest among conquered people, some Arab tribes Umayyads weakened by discontent, time ripe for rebellion End of the Umayyads Abbasids, led by descendant of Muhammad’s uncle, united many Umayyad opponents by appearing to support their causes Abbasids wiped out Umayyads in series of battles, late 740s Caliphate entered Abbasid dynasty Rebellion Ruling the Empire
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Sequence What events brought about the end of the Umayyad dynasty? Answer(s): A family called the Abbasids took advantage of discontent with the Umayyads and established a new caliphate.
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Baghdad Abbasids relocated capital of caliphate; rulers lived in splendor Chose Baghdad, on Tigris River, in present-day Iraq Government Rulers cut off from people Caliph hidden behind screen in throne room, could not be seen Used Persian officials; vizier, deputy, oversaw affairs of state Persian Influence Move to Baghdad beginning of end of Arab domination of Muslim world Abbasids adopted Persian style of government Change in Islam Nature of Islam changed Abbasids invited all to join in, turned Islam into universal religion, attracted people of many cultures The Abbasid Dynasty
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Trade helped fund cultural achievement Most prominent Abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid, helped bring culture to great heights, 786 to 809 Support of scholarship helped produce lasting achievements of Islamic arts, sciences Funding for Change Islam spread through trade Muslim traders journeyed from end to end of caliphate, exchanging goods and information Exchange brought Islam to West Africa, Southeast Asia Importance of Trade A Changing Culture
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Contrast How did the Abbasids differ from the Umayyads? Answer(s): The Abbasids focused more on prosperity and cultural advancement than on empire expansion.
Muslim Civilization Section 2 As early as the 800s, Abbasid political power weakened. By the 900s, a number of small, independent states broke away from the caliphate. European Christians weakened Muslim rule Christian armies began to drive Muslims out of Spain, 1000s European Christians began Crusades –Wanted to make Holy Land Christian, won at first –Muslims eventually retook Jerusalem Challenges from Europe 969, serious threat, Fatimid dynasty established in Egypt Claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatimah From Egypt, controlled Mediterranean, Red Sea Disrupted Abbasid trade Fatamids soon richer, more powerful than Abbasids Problems from Egypt The End of Unity
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Seljuk Turks Many non-Arabs among peoples of caliphate, including Turks 1055, Turkish Seljuks rose to power, took control of Baghdad Seljuks were Sunni Muslims, supported Abbasid caliph Mamluks and Mongols 1200s, Mamluks took power in Egypt, Syria 1258, Mongols destroyed Baghdad, killed Abbasid caliph; caliphate finished Islam still a vital force, spread to India, Central and Southeast Asia War Against Byzantine Empire Seljuks defended Abbasids against Fatimids, went to war against Byzantine Empire, defeated Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert Seljuks would go on to create own empire Seljuk Turks and Others
Muslim Civilization Section 2
Muslim Civilization Section 2 Summarize What forces ended the unity of the caliphate? Answer(s): Abbasids lost political power when small independent states broke away.