Presentation on theme: "Assyrian and Persian Empire Borrowed and modified from agi.seaford.k12.de.us/sites/jjeandell/.../As syrian%20Empire.ppt Borrowed and modified from agi.seaford.k12.de.us/sites/jjeandell/.../As."— Presentation transcript:
Assyrian and Persian Empire Borrowed and modified from agi.seaford.k12.de.us/sites/jjeandell/.../As syrian%20Empire.ppt Borrowed and modified from agi.seaford.k12.de.us/sites/jjeandell/.../As syrian%20Empire.ppt Slides 11-30 were created by Ms. Nayder from our World Studies Patterns of Interaction textbook ) Slides 11-30 were created by Ms. Nayder from our World Studies Patterns of Interaction textbook )
Assyrians By: Aaron Robinson Andy Webb Katie Hickey **the Assyrian soldiers of Sennacherib carrying off the statues of the gods of an enemy Syrian city.**
Timeline of Assyrian Empire 5000 B.C. – First site of Ninevah inhabited 4750 B.C. – First temple of Ashur built 1760 B.C. – Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Ashur ending the early Assyrian Empire. 1500 B.C. – Assyria subject to Mitanni rule. 1365 B.C. – Ashur-uballit lays the foundations of the first Assyrian Empire
Timeline of Assyrian Empire 1363 B.C. – Ashur-ubalit revolts against Mitanni rule and founds the Assyrian Empire. 1273 B.C. – Shalmanesar of Assyria conquers the Mitanni. 1240 B.C. – Assyrians attack Babylon. 774 B.C. – Assyrian incursions of Phoenicia begin. 752 B.C. – Aramaic is made an official language of the empire alongside Akkadiam.
Timeline of Assyrian Empire 745 B.C. – Tiglath Pileser III rebuilds the decaying Assyrian empire. 722 B.C. – Sargon II reorganizes the Assyrian empire into 70 provinces. 705 B.C. – Capital moved to Dur Sharrukin and Assyria attacks Jerusalem.
Timeline of Assyrian Empire 689 B.C. – Assyrians destroy Babylon. 671-651 B.C. – Assyrians rule in Egypt. 612 B.C. – Medes ally with Babylonia to conquer Assyria. 609 B.C – Ashur – Uballit II, the last Assyrian king, is defeated at Harran and the Assyrian Empire came to its end.
Assyrian Religion Assyrians have practiced two religions throughout their history: Ashurism and Christianity. Ashurism was the first religion of the Assyrians. The word Assyrian, in its Latin form, derives from the name of Ashur, the Assyrian god.
Assyrian Religion Ashur was the religious capital of Assyria, and the center for worship of the god Ashur and the goddess Ishtar/Inanna. Ashur was the religious capital and also the political capital at large periods of Assyrian history.
Assyrian Religion Although other cities had more inhabitants and were better situated strategically and easier to defend. Ashur had about 34 temples and 3 palaces. Only a few of these have been excavated.Although other cities had more inhabitants and were better situated strategically and easier to defend. Ashur had about 34 temples and 3 palaces. Only a few of these have been excavated. Assyrians continued to practice Ashurism until 256 A.D, although by that time, most Assyrians had accepted Christianity.
Notable Rulers of Assyria Shalmaneser Tiglath-Pileser I Ashar-Nasirpal II Shalmaneser III Tiglath Pileser III Sargon II Sennacherub Ashurbanipal
Government Assyrians were ruled by very strong kings. Many were great warriors since these people were almost always involved in fighting. Assyrians were ruled by very strong kings. Many were great warriors since these people were almost always involved in fighting. Most battles were caused by geography as the rolling hills and valleys provided no protection for the Assyrians. Most battles were caused by geography as the rolling hills and valleys provided no protection for the Assyrians. Assyrian kings had to control many people over a large area, so they divided their empire into provinces. Each province had officials that collected taxes and governed. Assyrian kings had to control many people over a large area, so they divided their empire into provinces. Each province had officials that collected taxes and governed.
Military Life The Assyrian Army was very well organized. Each member was authorized to have a shield, helmet, spear, and dagger. (which were made of iron) They had chariots, cavalry, and archers. Early on they fought only in the summers because of the planting and harvest. Assyrians were powerful due to the fact that they were very cruel. For hundreds of years their armies spread death and destruction throughout the Middle East. They used battering rams or tunneled under city walls. After each town was destroyed they would burn it, then take the citizens and their goods. Over 600 years, the Assyrians conquered the Mitanni, Babylon, Urartu, Phoenicia, Jerusalem and Egypt.
Assyrian Contributions King Ashur-Banipal started one of the world’s first libraries. It had over 25,000 tablets of hymns, stories, and biographies. King Ashur-Banipal started one of the world’s first libraries. It had over 25,000 tablets of hymns, stories, and biographies. Invention of locks and keys Invention of locks and keys First system of keeping time First system of keeping time First paved roads First paved roads First postal system First postal system First guitar First guitar First plumbing and flush toilets First plumbing and flush toilets Invention of magnifying glasses Invention of magnifying glasses
The Empire Crumbles The cruelty displayed by the Assyrians had earned them many enemies. In 612 BC, a combined army of Medes and Chaldenans and others burned and leveled Nineveh.
The Hebrew prophet Nahum gave voice to the feelings of many at the time. PRIMARY SOURCE “And it shall come to pass, that all they that look upon these shall flee from thee, and say Nineveh is laid to waste; who will bemoan her? Whence shall I seek comforters for thee?... The Shepherds slumber, O King of Assyria: thy nobles shall dwell in the dust: thy people is scattered upon the mountains, and no man gathereth them.” Nahum 3:7, 18 Bible
Rebirth of Babylon under the Chaldeans Around 600 BC, the Chaldeans made Babylon their capital. It became the center of a new empire, more than 1,000 years after Hammurabi. King Nebuchadnezzar restored the city
CHALDEAN Contributions Chaldean astronomers kept detailed records of how the stars and planets seemed to change positions in the night sky. They also concluded that the sun, moon, Earth and five other planets belonged to the same solar system. The Chaldean’s formed the basis for both astronomy and astrology
CHALDEAN Contributions Continued CHALDEAN Contributions Continued According to legend, one of Nebuchadnezzar’s wives missed the fragrant shrubs of her mountain homeland. To please her, he had fragrant trees and shrubs planted on terraces that rose 75 feet above Babylon’s dry, flat plain. These are known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
Greek Scholars listed them as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Hanging Gardens of Babylon
The Persians came to power next in 550 BC Persia, is in modern day Iran. They adopted many Assyrian military, political and artistic inventions. The Persians would use the organizations that Assyrians had developed to stabilize the region.
The Persian Empire Persian Kings were very tolerant. Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Empire. Darius seized the thrown in 522 BC and under his rule established an excellent system of roads that allowed him to communicate quickly with the most distant parts of the Empire.
Persian Empire The Royal Road was 1, 677 miles in length. For the first time coins of a certain value circulated throughout an extended empire. The network roads and the wide use of standardized coins promoted trade.
The Persian Empire and Zoroastrianism A Persian prophet named Zoroaster taught that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle is fought between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil. He preached that each person is expected to take part in this struggle. The religion is monothestic, with a belief in the God Ahura Mazda
Zoroastrianism At the end of time, Mazda will judge everyone according to how well he or she fought the battle for good Traces of Zoroasterism such as the concept of Satan and the belief in Angels can be found in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Zoroastrianism After the Muslim conquest of Persia in AD 600, the Zoroastrianism declined. Some groups carried the faith to India. Today, modern Zoroastrians continue to observe the religion’s traditions in several countries including Iran and India, where its followers are called Parsis.