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Birthplace of European Civilization

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Presentation on theme: "Birthplace of European Civilization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Birthplace of European Civilization
GREECE Birthplace of European Civilization

2 Location Greece is a peninsula on a peninsula
Greece is part of the Peloponnesus Which is part of the Balkans

3 Peloponnesian Peninsula
The Aegean Sea separates Greece from Asia Minor The Mediterranean Sea separates Greece from Africa and Italy

4 Early Greece People first live in Greece 55,000 years ago
First Greek civilization established around 2,000 B.C. This Civilization was the Minoans on the island of Crete In 1628 B.C. Minoans weakened by tidal waves and volcanic activity on Crete

5 Mycenaeans Controlled Greece from 1600 B.C. to about 1200 B.C.
Built fort-like cities on the Peloponnesus Conquered the Minoans around 1400 B.C. Basis for Homer’s Iliad and the movie Troy Destroyed by warfare and earthquakes

6 Rise of the City-State Evolved from Mycenaean forts
Greeks called them a “POLIS” The original fort from which the city was built around was called the “ACROPOLIS” City-States Covered small area of land Fewer than 10,000 people in them Built around acropolis Had a “AGORA” or marketplace

7 Greek Culture Homer Wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
Iliad - story of the the Trojan War Odyssey - story of Odysseus’s 10 year journey home

8 Greek Religion De-emphasized high standards of personal morality
Looked for 3 things in Religion Explain nature Explain emotions (especially self-control) Brought benefits like good luck or a good harvest

9 Greek Religion cont’d Did not expect their religion to save them from sin Myths - traditional stories about Gods, Goddesses, and heroes Oracles - Place where Gods spoke through priests and priestesses Olympic Games - Place to please the Gods through athletic contests

10 Greek Government City-states originally ruled by a King
Over time landowners/nobles known as aristocrats or “best men” gained more power They overthrew their kings by about 700 B.C. City-states controlled by aristocrats or nobles were known as aristocracies

11 Rise of the Hoplite By 600 B.C. many nonaristocrats could afford weapons These men were known as Hoplites and fought in closely packed rows As they became more important to the defense of the city they demanded more say in government

12 Aristocrats Fall Along with the Hoplites, poor farmers also were unhappy with the acristocracies Tyrants - or leaders who took power illegally (agains the law), were able to bring a better life to people Over time many Tyrants began to rule unjustly That is why the word tyrant has come to mean someone who uses absolute power brutally

13 Democracy After the overthrow of tyrants many city-states came up with the idea of popular government Or that people can and should rule themselves Some city - states like Athens developed Democracy - government in which citizens take part Only a select few MEN were allowed to vote

14 Athens and Sparta Athens and Sparta showed great differences
Athens was known for its laws and government Sparta was known for its physical strength and discipline of its people Spartan laws written intentionally so that people would have to memorize them as a further test of discipline

15 Society Athens Had 3 Social Groups Sparta Had 3 Social Groups
Equals - land divided equally among these citizens and their families Half-Citizens - no political power, but were free and served in the army Helots - were slaves who worked the ground Athens Had 3 Social Groups Citizens - were all Athenian-born men, they could be rich aristocrats or poor farmers Metics - non-citizens born outside of Athens, could not take part in government Slaves were at the bottom

16 Sparta vs. Athens: Government
Two Kings One led army & other ran matters at home Council of Elders made of 28 male “equals” over the age of 60 Assembly - all equals over age of 30 Ephors - elected by assembly to make sure kings followed the laws Early Athens Started out aristocratic Only citizens who owned land held office Archons - elected rulers who served on yr terms In 507 BC Cleisthenes seized power and turned into a democracy

17 Spartan Military Sparta controlled lives of citizens from birth
Unhealthy babies left to die Age 7 - boys leave home for military barracks train specifically for war Age 20 begin military service

18 Spartan Military cont’d
Age 20 - could marry but could not live at home Not allowed to egage in trade or business 30 to 60 - could live with wife but still available for military service Spartan woman received strict physical training.

19 Sparta in Review The training by the Spartan state led to a strong gov’t and an almost unbeatable army However they paid a price for their power They gave up their individual liberties They created little in art, literature, or science

20 Athenian Democracy Divided Athens into 10 Tribes
Each Tribe chose 50 men These men formed Council of 500 Served for one year Couldn’t be chosen more than twice Council proposed laws to the assembly Assembly all males citizens of voting age Greece = Direct Democracy - all citizens participate directly in decision making U.S. = Representative Democracy - citizens elect rep. to govern them

21 The Expansion of Greece
Greece fought a number of wars with Persia Wars fought b/w 500 BC -479 BC Victories in these wars led to a rivalry b/w Athens and Sparta

22 Persian Wars Greeks interfere in revolts in Asia Minor
Darius vows to punish Greeks especially Athens Persians conquer Thrace and Macedonia Although outnumbered Greeks (mostly Athenians but no Spartans) win resounding victory at Marathon in 492 BC

23 Persian Wars con’t Victory at Marathon causes Persians to withdraw
Uneasy truce b/w the two Civilizations last for 10 yrs In 480 BC Xerxes (Darius’s son) leads a huge Persian navy and army against the Greeks This time several Greek city-states (including Sparta) unite to stop the Persians

24 Thermopylae 7,200 men led by 300 Spartans holds pass at Thermopylae
Buys enough time for other city-states to assemble their armies

25 Persian Wars Conclude Persians then march on Athens and burn it
Athenians destroy Persian fleet at Salamis In 479 BC Athenians and Spartans defeat Persian on the Plain of Platea, NW of Athens This ended the Persian Wars

26 Results of Persian Wars
Greeks in Asia Minor now free of Persian rule Persians still meddled in Greek affairs Athenians rebuilt Athens and entered period of cultural achievement Threat of invasion still persisted which drove need for Greek unity Both Athens and Sparta wanted the leadership in this new Greek State Athenians win through diplomacy with Delian League Delian League - alliance of city-states with Athens as leader

27 Peloponnesian War Although Athens was a democracy the Delian League was not Athens made all the decisions Greek city-states resented Athens Some city-states like Corinth and Thebes turned to Sparta for support Athens + Allies and Sparta + Allies become embroiled in civil war

28 Peloponnesian War Spartans had stronger army
Athenians the stronger navy War lasted 27 yrs Sparta with the help of their old enemy Persia defeated the Athenians Greece was politically unstable following the war

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