Presentation on theme: "Period 3 Concept notes 600-1450. THE HANSA = ALIAS: HANSEATIC LEAGUE Reason for forming: Vikings are incredibly scary. But by 1159, the “Vikings” weren’t."— Presentation transcript:
Period 3 Concept notes
THE HANSA = ALIAS: HANSEATIC LEAGUE Reason for forming: Vikings are incredibly scary. But by 1159, the “Vikings” weren’t really a problem anymore. Though part of the formation was mutual security, it is more likely that they formed for the mutual financial benefit of the members; specifically, between the Hamburg Salt Mines & the Lubeck Herring fisherman RESULTS FOR THE MEMBERS: Don’t think that this was an alliance between a bunch of weird sounding European cities. It actually began as a connection of the GUILDS in those respective cities. The Hamburg-Lubeck alliance served as a model for other alliances. At its peak, the Hansa included 60+ members! They even formed their own “Diet” or Assembly to enforce its rules. It was a monopoly on trade of goods in North Europe. The beginning of the end for the Hansa was the rise of the Swedish Empire in the north, the Ottomans in the South, and the Holy Roman Empire in Germany. Only 9 people attended its final meeting in D Hanseatic League
3.2 A Why would the Byzantine Empire be considered a reconstituted government?
3.2 A reconstituted Gov. Reconstituted means to reconstruct or form again. The Byzantine Empire had a strong, stable government Use of emperors similar to Rome Unique because it’s an example of a “reconstituted” government Succession problems didn’t exist: based on patriarchy & family lineage Codified Roman laws for standardization & uniformity (Code of Justinian)
3.2C Persian influence in Islam From the Persians the Muslims adopted art, architecture, knowledge, and urban living. Persian traditions like veiled women were adopted by the Arabs. Wearing a veil was originally Persian, not Arab or Muslim and was done by upper class Persian women and the Persian harem, it was adopted by the Arabs for their upper class women and eventually all women.
3.2 II. Contacts btwn Tang and Abbasids Article
3.3 A Ag production increased due to tech. Chinampa field system Mexico Waru Waru in Andean
3.3 C Chinese, Persian, and Indian expanded textiles and porcelain. The Sassanid Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognized as one of the main powers in Western and Central Asia, alongside the Roman–Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years. Parthian EmpireWesternCentral Asia The main exports of the Sassanids were silk; woolen and golden textiles; carpets and rugs; hides; and, leather and pearls from the Persian Gulf.Persian Gulf
Persian History ( Fall) 603–628: War with the Byzantine Empire. Persia occupies Byzantine Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Transcaucasus, before being driven to withdraw to pre-war frontiers by Byzantine counter-offensiveByzantine Empire 610: Arabs defeat a Sassanid army at Dhu-QarDhu-Qar 626: Unsuccessful siege of Constantinople by Avars and PersiansConstantinople 627: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius invades Sasanian Mesopotamia. Decisive defeat of Persian forces at the battle of NinevehHeracliusbattle of Nineveh 628: Kavadh II overthrows Khosrau II and becomes Shahanshah.Kavadh IIKhosrau IIShahanshah 628: A devastating plague kills half of the population in Western Persia, including Kavadh II. Kavadh II  628–632: Civil war 632–644: Reign of Yazdegerd IIIYazdegerd III 636: Decisive Sassanid defeat at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah during the Islamic conquest of IranBattle of al-QādisiyyahIslamic conquest of Iran 641: The Muslims defeats a massive Sassanid army with heavy casualties during the Battle of NihawāndMuslimsSassanid armyBattle of Nihawānd 644: The Muslims conquers Khorasan, Yazdegerd III becomes a hunted fugitiveMuslimsKhorasan 651: Yazdegerd III fled eastward from one district to another, until at last he was killed by a local miller for his purse at Merv (present-day Turkmenistan), ending the dynasty.  His son, Peroz II, and many others went into exile in China. Yazdegerd IIIMervTurkmenistan Peroz II 
3.3II C.- Decline and Revive of Cities Multiple factors contributed to the decline of some cities. Required examples of factors- invasions diseases The decline of agricultural productivity The little Ice Age Cities that declined: ATHENS, ROME, ALEXANDRIA, CHANG’AN, PATALIPUTRA
3.3II C.- Decline and Revive of Cities Multiple factors influenced urban revival, including: end of invasions safe and reliable transportation rise of commerce and warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300 increased food production and subsequent population risesubsequent population rise AND/OR greater availability of labor helped urban growth New Cities: NOVGOROD, TIMBUKTU, HANGZHOU, CALICUT, BAGHDAD, MALACCA, VENICE
3.3 III C – Forms of Labor FREE PEASANT AGRICULTURE is what you probably think of when you think of peasants during the POST-CLASSICAL PERIOD. They were the majority of the population. Peasant comes from the French word Paisant meaning countryside. Peasants are typically small farm owning rural farmers. It later took on a negative connotation by the upper classes (ex. “Bloody Peasant” –King Arthur) Think of NOMADIC RANCHERs as PEASANTS without arable land. They follow their animals from pasture to pasture depending on the season. These people are generally associated with warrior-based cultures that became fearsome to settled people. They tend to move around 150 miles per year (in rotation). Examples: Cattle, Yaks, Sheep, Goats, Reindeer, Horses, Donkeys. GUILDS are simply a collection of craftsmen of a similar trade. They were originally organized similarly to a trade union or secret society. The goal of these GUILDS is to regulate their industry. GUILD members would be experienced tradesmen or “masters”.You enter the guild as an APPRENTICE, then becoming a JOURNEYMAN. Once you have created a MASTERPIECE, you then become a MASTER. GUILDS are a global entity from China, India, Persia, Africa, and Europe. By the 14th Century, for example, Paris had 350 guilds.
COERCED LABOR are different ways to force someone to do work for you… SERFDOM, MITA. In both Europe and Japan, SERFS work a specific plot of land for a LORD in return for protection. They are the lowest class of Feudal society. MITA was Incan CORVEE (unpaid, required labor).It was tribute owed to the Inca. Generally, people did large community projects. TAXES aren’t new. Medieval taxes were paid to the ruling class (usually to the King). The tax was often on land or came in the form of custom duties (taxes paid on moving from place to place). A prime example is the GELD. It was raised in England starting in 1012 to pay for MERCENANARIES. It was later replaced with taxes on personal income and property. MILITARY OBLIGATIONS: As a part of FEUDALISM, a PEASANT who worked the land of a LORD would owe military service for that LORD in return for land usage. The VASSAL (someone who pledged loyalty to a LORD) using whatever means they could attain, would have to defend the LORD’s territory. This was THE primary reason why the LORD entered into these FEUDAL relationships.