Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Spread of Islam. Arabia Before Muhammad Pastoral nomads (Bedouins) Tribal society Caravan trade important (incense), –Mediterranean –Middle East –East.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Spread of Islam. Arabia Before Muhammad Pastoral nomads (Bedouins) Tribal society Caravan trade important (incense), –Mediterranean –Middle East –East."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Spread of Islam

2 Arabia Before Muhammad Pastoral nomads (Bedouins) Tribal society Caravan trade important (incense), –Mediterranean –Middle East –East Africa –India Mecca major economic center Arab tribes under political influence of Byzantine (Christian) and Sasanid empire (Zoroastrian)

3 Byzantine and Sassanid Empire around 600 CE

4 Muhammad´s Life and Teachings Muhammad former merchant, began to have revelations by archangel Gabriel Main features: –Arab decent traced to Ishmael, Abraham´s son –strictly monotheistic –promise of heaven after death –five pillars Fasting prayer 5 times a day Almsgiving confession of faith pilgrimage to Mecca –universal religion, egalitariansim Elite in Mecca forces Mohammed to flee to Medina (622 CE, HIJRA, beginning of Muslim calendar)

5 Muslim Expansion Mohammad unites Arab tribes, –conquers Mecca in 630, dies 632 First four succesors (caliphs) expand territory –Middle East –North Africa –Persia Caliphs are leaders of all Muslims, political and religious (theocracy)

6 Success possible because of exhausting war between Persia (Sassanids) and Byzantium, motivated soldiers, ingenious military leadership, indifferent population Quarrels over succession lead to split into Sunni and Shia (Ali´s followers) –Shia: mostly in Persia, southern Iraq –Sunni: majority of Muslims

7 Muslim Expansion 632-750

8 Umayyad Dynasty (652-750) Capital in Damascus Wars against Byzantium Conquest of Spain, further advances stopped by Franks in 732 Arabic official language of government Conversions encouraged Non-Muslims pay a special head tax, but not forced to convert Judaism and Christianity tolerated

9 Great Mosque in Damascus

10 Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258) Supported by Shiites, although Sunni New capital Baghdad First 100 years golden age of Muslim culture Argument between ulama and caliph about who should have the final say in religious matters Caliph renounces his final authority in religious matters Counter caliph in Cordoba, Spain Regional loyalties, problems with Shiites,rise of new dynasties, and difficulty to control a large empire lead to gradual decline

11 Government Rulers legitimate power by upholding shari’a law Caliph is Muhammad’s successor Arab military camps control conquered areas Non-Muslims pay head tax After conquest of Persia, Abbasids rely on Persian bureaucrats Taxation of agricultural production Adopt pomp and ceremonies of Persian court

12 Political Fragmentation In 10th century third caliph in Cairo, Egypt North Africa: Berbers (11th cent.) Turkey, Iraq, Syria: -Abbasids rely increasingly on mamluks (slaves used as warriors) -Turkic slave soldiers gain political power -Seljuk Turks (11th century) create empire, are “protectors“ of the caliphs, but hold de-facto political power Turkey, Holy Land, Syria: Crusading states(1099-1250), (Do not survive permanently) Middle East: Mongols (1258 sack of Baghdad, end of Caliphate)


14 Islamic Law Sunna: tradition of the prophet Hadith: collection of Muhammad’s words and deeds, several different strands Quran and Hadith basis for Shari’a Muslim ruler required to live by and enforce shari’a Unifying effect on Muslim world Countries under Muslim law: Dar al Islam

15 Cities New cities and former military camps (Baghdad, Basra, Kufa, Fustat, Qayrawan) Grow because of conversions and economic growth Centers of Islam: mosques, schools, universities Centers of production: Cloth, metal goods, ceramics, glass

16 Economy International trade dominated by Muslim merchants Banking system, checks, credit, crucial for long distance trade Big cities provide markets for trade Business partnerships (often with Jewish and Christian merchants) Common currency (dinar)

17 Agriculture Independent landowners, large estates with slaves, tenant farmers Production for market, cash crops (sugar, citrus fruits, cotton, rice – from India and China) Use of fertilizers, water pumps, mills, improved irrigation Slaves used for sugar cane production


19 Science and Medicine House of wisdom in Baghdad (Greek, Indian, Persian, Mesopotamian texts translated into Arabic) Ibn al Haytham: Scientific Method, Book of Optics Al-Khwarizmi: Algorithm, Algebra Ibn Sina: Medical encyclopedia, contagious nature of diseases Surgeons disinfect wounds, use surgical instruments, trained in hospitals

20 Technology Transfer between east and west: Paper, astrolabe, compass, lateen sail, decimal system Production of steel (swords from Damascus)

21 Ibn Battuta´s Travels

22 Women and Slaves Women veiled and confined to the house, in Byzantine and Sassanid times – not new Legal protection of women under Quran, a woman´s soul was considered equal before Allah, but not equality to men (limited divorce rights, keep dowry if divorced by their husband, woman´s testimony in court weighs only half of a man´s, men can have up to four wives) Slavery allowed, slaves from central Asia, Europe, Africa Slaves used in households, as soldiers, in agriculture Forbidden to enslave Muslims

23 Sufism In 12 th and 13 th century Mystic brotherhoods looking for union with God through rituals, emotional sense of religion, personal relationship with Allah Sufi saints worshipped in countryside Important in spreading Islam to other countries and making it more popular

24 Mosque in Samarra

25 Alhambra in Cordoba

26 Arches

27 Arabesques

28 Calligraphy

Download ppt "The Spread of Islam. Arabia Before Muhammad Pastoral nomads (Bedouins) Tribal society Caravan trade important (incense), –Mediterranean –Middle East –East."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google