2Setting the StageIn ancient times, Greece was not a united country. It was a collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people lived. By 3000 BC, the Minoans lived on the large Greek island of Crete. The Minoans created an elegant civilization that had great power in the Mediterranean world. At the same time, people from the plains along the Black Sea and Anatolia migrated and settled in mainland Greece.
3Physical Features of Greece I. The Development of Greek CivilizationA. Reasons why Ancient Greece flourished:1. The Greek peninsula had excellent harbors along the Mediterranean Sea to stimulate trade.2. Surrounded by numerous islands; about 2000 in the Aegean and Ionian Seas.3. Favorable climate: long dry summers and short mild winters.4. Mountain ranges covered about ¾ of the land, protected Greece from the Northern climate, and divided the land into different regions.5. Lack of usable land and fresh water limited the population of Greece.
5Physical Features of Greece The Pyrenees, Alps, and Balkan Mountain ranges protect Greece from the Northern climate.The Greek peninsula has excellent harbors to stimulate trade and is surrounded by numerous islands.
6Civilization Develops Early GreeksMycenaeansThe people who settled the Greek mainland around 2000 BC were known as Mycenaeans, after their leading city, Mycenae.Located in Southern Greece the city was fortified to withstand any attack.A warrior-king controlled Mycenae as well as the surrounding towns and villages; these kings dominated Greece from BC.c BC they came into contact with the Minoans; gained ideas about trade, writing, art, politics, and literature.During the 1200s, the Mycenaeans fought a 10 year war against Troy. Many believe the Trojan War was fictional, however, archaeological studies have supported the reality of the war. (Look at pgs )
7Civilization Develops Early GreeksDoriansNot long after the Trojan War, Mycenaean civilization collapsed. The Dorians attacked and took over the land.The Dorians were less advanced, especially in writing. They learned through oral tradition. Their greatest storyteller was Homer, who composed epics around BC.Homer’s greatest epic was The Iliad.Greek myths also developed about the Greek gods. (Through the myths, Greeks sought to understand the mysteries of nature and human passions)
10Greek Gods and Goddesses: The Olympians The Twelve Olympians, in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. There were, at various times, fourteen different gods recognized as Olympians, though never more than twelve at one time. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis are always considered Olympians. Hestia, Demeter, Dionysus, and Hades are the variable gods among the Twelve.Hestia gave up her position as an Olympian to Dionysus in order to live among mankind (eventually she was assigned the role of tending the fire on Mount Olympus). Persephone spent six months of the year in the underworld (causing winter), and was allowed to return to Mount Olympus for the other six months in order to be with her mother, Demeter. And, although Hades was always one of the principal Greek gods, his home in the underworld of the dead made his connection to the Olympians more tenuous. The Olympians gained their supremacy in the world of gods after Zeus led his siblings to victory in war with the Titans; Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades were siblings; all other Olympians (with the exception of foam-born Aphrodite) are usually considered the children of Zeus by various mothers, except for Athena, who in some versions of the myth was born of Zeus alone. Additionally, some versions of the myth state that Hephaestus was born of Hera alone as Hera's revenge for Zeus' solo birth of Athena.Greek Gods and Goddesses: The Olympians
11Aphrodite The goddess of Love and BeautyApollo The god of the Sun and the MusicAres The god of WarArtemis The goddess of the HuntAthena The goddess of Wisdom and ArtsDemeter The goddess of the HarvestDionysus The god of the WineHades The god of the UnderworldHephaestus The god of MetallurgyHera The goddess of the FamilyHermes The god of the TradeHestia The goddess of the HearthPoseidon The god of the SeasZeus The King of the Gods and ruler of mankind
14Birth of Greek City-States I. City-States/Polis (750 B.C. to 400 B.C.)A. City-States were small in area, with about square miles of land and no more than 10,000 people.B. Each city-state had its own special gods or goddesses.C. Traded with each other.D. Citizens met at an agora (marketplace) or acropolis (fortified hilltop) to discuss gov’t and politics.
15Reasons for the Lack of Greek Unity I. Reasons for the lack of Greek unity:A. Greece's many mountains isolated and separated the city-states.B. The various Greek city-states had different types of governments:1. Limited Monarchies- The king ruled the gov’t; power of the king was limited by the nobles.2. Aristocracies- gov’t ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning families.3. Oligarchies- a small group of nobles, merchants, artisans, etc. ruled the gov’t.4. Limited Democracies- citizens had many rights and participated directly in political decision making.C. Patriotism was for each individual city-state rather than for the country.**Examine Chart on p.128
16Athens: Home of Greek Democracy and Culture I. Athens: Home of Greek Democracy and Culture.A. Athens and Greek Democracy:1. Athens was a busy center of manufacturing and commerce.2. Education was very important in Ancient Athens.3. A peaceful city-state.B. Building Democracy:1. Draco-developed a legal code that all Athenians were equal under the law; he also believed in harsh punishments for criminals.2. Solon-outlawed debt slavery; organized Athenians into social classes based on wealth.3. Cleisthenes-reorganized society based on where people lived; increased power of the assembly; created the Council of 500; allowed citizens to participate in limited democracy.SolonCleisthenes“Father of Athenian democracy”
17Athens: Home of Greek Democracy and Culture C. Pericles-leader during the Golden Age of Greece1. A very popular and well-liked leader of Athens.2. He beautified Athens and constructed exquisite temples.a. The Parthenon on the Acropolis.3. Introduced direct democracy.4. Encouraged the arts.a. Writers, artists, sculptors, poets, musicians, and philosophers abounded.PericlesAthens
19Sparta: A Military Society I. Sparta: A Military SocietyA. Sparta focused on foreign conquest in response to population pressure.1. Neighboring city-states were conquered and annexed.B. Citizens lived according to stern rules and strict regulations, society was extremely structured.1. Individual lives were regulated from birth to death.2. Citizens were denied freedom of speech or property ownership.3. All land was owned by the state and rented out to people.a. Political rights were granted only to a small body of land-owning aristocrats.Located in Peloponnesus
20Sparta: A Military Dictatorship B. Strong military life1. Every new-born infant was examined by a committee.a. Babies were abandoned to die if it showed any type of deformity.2. At the age of seven, male children were taken from their parents and trainedas soldiers until they were 30, but served in the army until 60.a. Endured harsh physical training designed to make them used to sufferingand hardship.3. Girls also received some military training. Women ran the family estates while their husbands were at war.
21Sparta: A Military Dictatorship C. Slave labor1. Spartan citizens were not allowed by law to engage in work or trade.2. State-owned slaves, called Helots, worked the land.3. Freeman from neighboring city-states carried out manufacturing and commerce.Spartan men lived off the work of Helots so that they could devote their entire life to being a soldier.
301st Persian War: Battle of Marathon II. Highlights of the Persian War:A. The Persian War united all of Greece.1. Sparta and Athens, bitter rivals, united to fight the Persians.B. King Darius of Persia led the Persian invasion of Greece in 490 B.C.1. The invasion was repulsed at the Battle of Marathon.2. Persia was forced to retreat.King Darius
311st Persian War: Battle of Marathon A messenger named Pheidippides ran about 25 miles, from Marathon to Athens, to announce the defeat of the Persians. At the end of the march he died of exhaustion.
322nd Persian War: Thermopylae I. In 480 B.C., Xerxes (son of Darius) led an invasion of Greece with the Persianarmy and navy.A. Persian army of over 20,000 soldiers met the Greek army of 7000 (with 300 Spartans) under the leadership of King Leonidas at Thermopylae.1. Spartan army was massacred and panic spread through Greece andAthens was threatened.a. However, King Leonidas and the Spartan army’s heroic last stand delayedthe Persian advance and allowed the other Greek city-states to unify.
332nd Persian War: Salamis II. The Athenian navy lured the Persian navy into battle at Salamis.A. The Athenians decisively defeated the Persians.1. The Persian Army was forced to retreat from Greece.Xerxes, the king of Persia during the second invasion of Greece, watched the Battle of Salamis from a cliff side.
352nd Persian War: Aftermath B. Athens emerged as the leader of the Greek city-states.1. Delian League was formed.a. Led by Athens, it provided for the common defense of Greece.C. Sparta became jealous and withdrew from the league.1. Sparta felt that it should be the leader.2. Sparta and its allies formed the Peloponnesian League to counter theDelian League.
36Peloponnesian Wars I. Peloponnesian Wars (459 B.C. to 404 B.C.) A. Sparta became jealous of Athenian culture, prosperity, and trade leadershipafter the Persian War.B. Sparta and Athens go to war to resolve the leadership of Greece.1. Athens had the strongest navy, but a weak army.2. Sparta had a weak navy, but a powerful army.C. After fifty years of fighting, Sparta finally defeated the Athenian navyat Aegospotami in 404 B.C.D. Sparta became the new leader of Greece. (404 B.C. to 371 B.C.)1. Abolished all democratic reforms throughout Greece.E. In 371 B.C., Sparta was defeated by Thebes, another Greek city-state.1. Sparta's harsh dictatorship came to an end.
37Hellenistic Period (350 B.C. to 146 B.C.) I. Hellenistic Period (350 B.C. to 146 B.C.)A. Years preceding the Roman conquest of Ancient Greece, led by Macedonia.B. Macedonia, located North of Greece, had a rough terrain and cold climate.C. Leadership during the Hellenistic Period:1. King Philip of Macedon (356 B.C. to 336 B.C.)a. Defeated Greece and united it with Macedon.b. Philip planned to invade Persia, but was assassinated, while attendinghis daughter’s wedding.Many scholars suspect to this day that the assassination of King Philip of Macedon by agents of his wife, Olympias, to elevate their son, the future "Alexander the Great" to the thrones of Macedon and Greece was a successful conspiracy. "Alexander the Great", himself, continues to be a suspect in the murder of Philip, his own father, in his ascension to the throne.
38Alexander the Great II. Alexander the Great (336 B.C. to 323 B.C.) A. Son of King Philip of Macedon.B. Put down uprisings in Greek cities after his father's death.C. Conquered Asia Minor, Persia, Egypt, Syria, Afghanistan, and northern India.D. The city of Alexandria, Egypt became the capital of Alexander's empire.E. Alexander the Great died of fever in 323 B.C. at the age of 33.1. Alexander the Great's empire collapsed soon after his death.2. His kingdom was divided among his top-ranking officials: Antigonus- Macedonia, Ptolemy-Egypt, Seleucus-Persian Empire.
41Results of the Hellenistic Period III. Results of the Hellenistic Period.A. Cultural fusion1. East (Orient) met the West (Greece)2. Improvements in science, health and welfare, and the arts developed.
42Achievements of Ancient Greece: Theater & Arts I. Achievements in literature:A. PoetryB. Theater-dramas-tragedies and comediesC. HistoryD. Oratory
43Achievements of Ancient Greece: Science II. Achievements in Science and Greek scientists.A. Euclid- used geometry, wrote Elements, proofs for geometry.B. Hippocrates- diseases were the result of natural causes and not by demons.C. Aristarchus- proved the earth rotates on its axis and moves around the sun.D. Strabo- wrote the first geography book.E. Herophilus- dissected the human body and discovered that blood ran throughthe body via arteries.F. Archimedes- gave the world the principles of the pulley and the screw andlever, calculated value of pi.Hippocrates- He said that diseases were the result of natural causes and not by demons or cast upon humans by the gods as many ancient Greeks believed.Archimedes- gave the world the principles of the pulley and the screw and lever.
44Achievements of Ancient Greece: Philosophy III. PhilosophyA. Socrates (469 B.C. to 399 B.C.)1. Question all things as a way of arriving at the truth.2. Socrates was put to death for questioning the institutions & ideas of his time.B. Plato (427 B.C. to 347 B.C.)1. Pupil of Socrates2. Urged people to seek perfection in what they thought and did.C. Aristotle (384 B.C. to 322 B.C.)1. Pupil of Plato and the teacher of Alexander the Great.2. Aristotle's teachings in psychology, botany, logic, politics, and biology wereauthoritative for hundreds of years.The Death of SocratesPlato & Aristotle
45Achievements of Ancient Greece: Architecture IV. Greek ArtA. Architecture1. Temples made of marble2. Three styles of columns were designed.a. Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
46Achievements of Ancient Greece: Sculpture V. SculptureA. Masters at sculpting the human form.B. Skilled at representing violent emotions.
47Terms to Know: City-States Aegospotami Socrates Limited Monarchies Aristocracies Thebes PlatoOligarchies Hellenistic Period AristotleLimited Democracies King Philip of Macedon DoricSparta Alexander the Great IonicHelots Alexandria, Egypt CorinthianAthens Cultural Fusion StoicismPericles Pantheism EpicureanismParthenon Mount Olympus Colossus of RhodesAcropolis Mycenaeans Nike of SamothracePersia & Persian Wars DoriansPhalanx HomerKing Darius EpicsXerxes DracoMarathon, Battle of SolonKing Leonidas CleisthenesThermopylae, Battle of Greek dramaSalamis, Battle ofDelian LeaguePeloponnesian LeaguePeloponnesian War
48Concepts to Know:Describe the geography of Greece and how it helped civilization develop.Explain the reasons for the lack of Greek unity?Describe the some of the developments in government in ancient Greece.Describe Spartan society.Describe Athenian society.What were some of the similarities and differences between Sparta and Athens?Explain the First Persian War. What were its results?Explain the Second Persian War. What were its results?What was the Peloponnesian War and why was it fought?What was the Hellenistic Period? Who was King Philip of Macedon?Describe the accomplishments of Alexander the Great.Describe the religion of ancient Greece. Who were some of the ancient Greek gods &goddesses?Describe some of the major achievements in literature of ancient Greece.Describe some of the major achievements in science of ancient Greece.Describe some of the major achievements in philosophy of ancient Greece.Describe some of the major achievements in architecture of ancient Greece.
49Homework Complete notes through my PowerPoint online You will also find review terms and concepts – consider this your study guide in conjunction with your vocab (some overlap)1 of 2 options listed on the board (Venn Diagram or chart of major philosophers.)