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Building the Classical World: Hebrews, Persians and Greeks, 1100-336 B.C.E. The West CHAPTER 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Building the Classical World: Hebrews, Persians and Greeks, 1100-336 B.C.E. The West CHAPTER 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building the Classical World: Hebrews, Persians and Greeks, 1100-336 B.C.E. The West CHAPTER 3

2 Settlement in Canaan Ca. 1100 Hapiru (Hebrews) arrived in Canaan from Egypt, with a monotheistic religion Confederation of Hebrew tribes evolved in Canaan Ca. 1020 Saul chosen as first Hebrew king

3 The Israelite Kingdoms David (ca. 1000-962 B.C.E.) developed centralized government from Jerusalem Solomon (ca. 962-922) built the first temple of Jerusalem and developed international commercial and diplomatic links Ca. 922 B.C.E. division of Hebrew kingdom into Israel and Judah

4 The Hebrew Prophets Critique of moral and and religious decay Elijah (ninth century B.C.E.) taught that kings and rulers were not above the law Amos and Isaiah (eighth century B.C.E.) attacked social and religious hypocrisy Jeremiah (ca. 627 B.C.E.) challenged Jerusalem’s priesthood

5 Destruction of the Israelite Kingdoms 733 B.C.E. Assyrians conquer Israel 597 B.C.E. Babylonians sack Jerusalem and burn the Temple of Solomon 20,000 Hebrews deported to Babylon Babylonian astronomy influenced Hebrew calendar

6 Second Temple Judaism 515 B.C.E. Second Temple of Jerusalem built Ezra (ca. 458 B.C.E.) instituted reformed temple worship Compilation of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament): established a moral vision of human existence

7 Cyrus the Great and Persian Expansion Cyrus the Great (550-530 B.C.E.) founded the largest empire in the known world, stretching from India to the Mediterranean Government based on tolerance of all religious and ethnic groups Zoroastrianism: official religion of Persian empire included concepts of a final judgment, and of heaven and hell

8 The Achaemenid Dynasty Founded by Darius in 522 B.C.E. Reorganized administration into a provincial system of satrapies Military failures of Darius and Xerxes, against the Greeks, demonstrated the limits of Persian imperial expansion

9 The Dark Age (ca. 1100-750 B.C.E. Urban life disappeared Collapse of maritime trade Decline in agriculture and population Interaction of Ionian Greeks with Phoenicians, from ca. 800 B.C.E., marked the end of Greek isolation

10 The Archaic Age (ca. 750-479 B.C.E.) New literary works and themes: Iliad and Odyssey New social and political forms: the polis (city-state), tyranny, democracy Colonization of coastal regions in Italy, France, Spain and North Africa spread Greek culture and language throughout the Mediterranean

11 Sparta: A Military Society Political power held by male warriors - “the Equals” Control of helots through terror Valued courage, blind obedience, personal simplicity and contempt for fear and pain Military bonds outweighed family

12 Athens: Towards Democracy First democracy of the ancient world Solon (ca. 650-570 B.C.E.) limited power of aristocracy, opened political participation to all male citizens and abolished debt-slavery Cleisthenes, in 508 B.C.E., founded the council of 500

13 The Persian Wars Marathon, 490 B.C.E. - Athenians and allies defeat superior Persian army Thermopylae, 480 B.C.E. - Spartans and allies delay Persian invasion force Salamis, 480 B.C.E. - Athenian navy routs Persian navy in one day Plataea, 479 B.C.E. - final Persian attempt to invade Greece ends in defeat

14 The Rise and Fall of the Athenian Empire Athens transformed the Delian League into an empire Pericles (461-429 B.C.E.) chief architect of the Athenian empire 431-404 B.C.E. - Peloponnesian War fought between Athens and Sparta Athenian democracy survived the collapse of the Athenian empire

15 Society and Religion in Classical Greece Strict gender hierarchy in favor of males Idealization of male homosexual relations Economic prosperity and cultural legacy founded upon slavery Polytheistic religion

16 Intellectual Life Use of dramatic performances to examine social values Pioneered scientific thought, by seeking to explain natural phenomena without reference to divinity Foundation of causal, historical writing Development of philosophical thought Foundation of artistic ideas of beauty, symmetry and proportion

17 Classical Foundations of the West Religious and ethical teachings of Hebrews Administrative efficiency of Persian empire Political, philosophical and artistic ideas of Greek culture

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