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Chapter 4-5: Classical Greece and Rome and the end of the Classical Era. AP World History, Mr. Bartula.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4-5: Classical Greece and Rome and the end of the Classical Era. AP World History, Mr. Bartula."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4-5: Classical Greece and Rome and the end of the Classical Era. AP World History, Mr. Bartula

2 Minoan Civilization  Crete, ca 1700 BCE

3  Fertile Soil  Isolation  Limited Resources encouraged immigration, trade  Trade and contact with Egypt, Mesopotamia, other Mediterranean islands  Wealthy  Little evidence of military

4  Artistic  Social and Gender Equality  Anthropomorphic religion with Goddesses dominant

5 The Palace of Knossos

6 Minoan Art



9 Linear A and B

10 Ca 1450-1500 BCE: Eruption of Thera

11 The Mycenaeans  Settled in mainland Greece before and after the Minoan collapse  Minoan weakness allowed Mycenaeans to gain strength

12 Mycenean Culture WarlikePatriarchal Adapted Minoan culture Monarchies Merchants and traders Wealth concentrated in hands of monarchs Major cities: Mycenae, Tiryns, Troy






18 Troy Ruins

19 The Real Trojan War

20 Mycenaean Tombs

21 The Mask of Agamemnon

22 Mycenaean Decline  Conflict between Troy and Mycenae Population decline in cities Ca 1100 BCE, cities abandoned

23 1100-750 BCE: Greek Dark Ages  Dorians move into Greek mainland and take control  Sedentary agricultural, non-urban  Mountainous topography, irregular coastline precluded unity  Thin, rocky soil encouraged fishing and trading rather than farming



26 Development of the Polis  Ca 800 BCE: Trade revived  Market places formed in villages  Small villages combined for better trade and self-defense  City-states developed around acropolises


28 Classical Greece ca 750- ca 350 BCE

29 Classical Greece  Independent city- states (polises)  Two dominant city states: Athens and Sparta  Patriarchal  Polytheistic

30 Athenian Political Development  All polises began as monarchies  Monarchies were replaced by oligarchies: rule by a few.  Oligarchies are also called aristocracies or timocracies: rule by the wealthy.

31 Notable Athenian Oligarchs  Draco: harsh laws  Solon: wise laws

32 Peisistratus: Tyrant of Athens  Seized power unlawfully  Continued Solon’s reforms

33 Cleisthenes: Father of Democracy  All citizens members of the Assembly (direct democracy)  Citizens: male property owners over 21, born in Athens  Council of 500 the governing body  Assembly met in the agora (market place)

34 Athenian Military  Hoplites: citizen soldiers  Phalanx

35 Sparta  Militarist  Government by Two Kings  Social and Gender Equality

36 The Persian Wars 490-480 BCE

37 The Persian Empire  Zoroastrian  Monarchy  Powerful Military  Highly Civilized

38 Battle of Marathon 490 BCE  26 miles from Athens  Athenian hoplites using phalanx defeated Persians  Great event in Athenian history  Persians barely noticed

39 Second Persian War 480 BCE  Persian King Xerxes launched major invasion of Greece  150,000 man army  600 ship navy

40 Thermopylae

41 Salamis

42 The Golden Age of Athens 480-404 BCE  Athens dominant city-state, led Delian League  Rich and powerful  Under Pericles, magnificent architecture



45 The Parthenon

46 Greek art


48 Peloponnesian Wars 431-404 BCE  Sparta and other Greek city-states attacked Athens  Athens surrendered after an epidemic killed large numbers of its citizens, including Pericles.  Sparta required Athens to tear down its walls and submit to Spartan rule.

49 Peloponnesian Wars

50 Greek Philosophy  Individualism  Ethical Behavior, sense of right and wrong  Separate from religious beliefs

51 Socrates 469-399 BCE  Know Thyself  Question Everything  Only the Pursuit of Goodness brings Happiness  Condemned to Suicide for “Corrupting the Youth of Athens”

52 Plato 427-347 BCE  Student of Socrates  “The Republic”: philosopher-kings  Founder of The Academy  “The Prisoners in the Cave” and the Ideal Forms.

53 Aristotle 384-322 BCE  Student of Plato  Founder of The Lyceum  Scientific Method  The Golden Mean (moderation)  Logic

54 Alexander The Great 356-323 BCE  Son of King Philip of Macedon, who had conquered Greece  Student of Aristotle  “Greek mind”  Became King at age 21 and set out to conquer the world.

55  Conquered the Persian Empire, Egypt, and the Fertile Crescent.  Eventually pushed to Indus River Valley  Encouraged “Hellenization” of Middle Eastern cultures  Resulted in Cultural Diffusion and development of Hellenistic culture throughout his empire  Died of fever at age 33.



58 Alexander’s Empire After His Death  Divided by his generals  Hellenistic culture, cross-cultural trade continued  Linked Mediterranean with India, China  Preserved Greek culture


60 Early Roman History  Italian Peninsula  Greek influence  Etruscan influence  Cultural Copying: Greek religion and Roman religion

61 Roman Culture  Patriarchal  Agrarian  Practical rather than Philosophical  Engineering, Architecture, Administration.


63 The Roman Republic 509-44 BCE  Patricians vs Plebeians  Senate  Assembly  Consuls  Tribunes  Dictators

64 The Punic Wars 264-146 BCE  Rome vs Carthage  Rome victorious  Roman control of Mediterranean “Mare Nostrum”  Roman tolerance  Expansion of slavery  Unemployment  Instability

65 The Civil Wars 133-31 BCE  Struggles between senators and generals  Julius Caesar  Octavian became sole ruler after Battle of Actium 31 BCE

66 The Pax Romana 31 BCE- 180 CE  Octavian became Emperor Augustus  Emperors held sole power  Roman armies maintained law and order  No clear line of succession to the throne.


68 Decline and Fall of Rome  “barbarian invasions” after 180 CE  Economic decline  Corruption and luxury  Lead poisoning?  Christianity




72 Christianity  Jewish religious beliefs  Zoroastrianism(?)  Greco-Roman philosophy  Jesus  Paul  Roman persecutions

73 Division of the Empire  Emperor Diocletian 284-305 divided the Empire into East and West  Response to invasions,  Economic decline


75 Emperor Constantine I 306-337  Legalized Christianity with the Edict of Milan 313  Established new capital at Byzantium, renamed Constantinople  Eastern Roman Empire eventually became the Byzantine Empire  Western Roman Empire weakened and collapsed in 476


77 Divisions Among Christians  Arguments over the nature of Christ and His relationship to God  Bishop Athanasius: Jesus is Son of God and identical to God.  Bishop Arius: Jesus was born human and was created by God. He was similar, but not identical, to God.

78 Council of Nicaea 325 Meeting of Church leaders called by Emperor Constantine to determine true Christian belief. Arius and his followers (Arians) were declared heretics (false believers). Nicene Creed written to summarize basic Christian beliefs.


80 Final Division of the Church  Western Christians followed the Roman Catholic Church under the Pope’s leadership.  Eastern Christians followed the Eastern Orthodox Church under the leadership of the Byzantine Emperor and the Patriarchs.  In 1054, a final split occurred over priestly celibacy.


82 The Spread of Civilization and the End of the Classical Era  By 200 CE three great empires dominated Eurasia:  The Roman Empire  Han China  Mauryan-Gupta India


84 Fall of the Classical Empires  All three Empires faced economic decline, corruption from within, and other weaknesses.  Most importantly, all three suffered from invasions of pastoral nomadic people, especially the...

85 Hsiung-nu (aka the Huns)

86 Spread of Major Religions  As the classical empires declined, major religions spread into new areas, bringing other cultural changes with them.  Hinduism to Southeast Asia  Buddhism to China, Korea, Japan  Christianity to Northern Europe (Roman Catholicism) and Eastern Europe and Russia (Eastern Orthodoxy.)

87 Similarities of the Universal Religions  All focused on the need to prepare for an eternal afterlife, rather than seeking aid for present problems.  All offered universal salvation, including lower classes and women.  Buddhism and Christianity believed in especially holy people: bhodissatvas and saints.

88 Northern Europe  Christian missionaries from Rome brought the new religion to the north using the Roman road system.  Monasteries in Northern and Western Europe preserved books and manuscripts from the classical era.



91 Viking Voyages  The Vikings sailed from Scandinavia throughout Western Europe and over the Atlantic Ocean to Iceland and Greenland


93 Polynesian and Oceanian Migrations


95 Africa  “The Dark Continent”??  Desertification led  to Bantu migrations  Iron technology  Ethiopia, Kush, Axum under Christian, Egyptian influence  Center of trade and caravan routes

96 Cross cultural Trade in the Post- Classical Period  Trade occurred among Europeans, but Europe was too backwards to be too involved in cross cultural trade  Vikings linked Northern Europe with the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions.  Africa was linked to Europe, Mediterranean, and Indian Ocean regions via ships and caravan routes.  Missionaries and Merchants carried cultural changes along trade routes.

97 The Silk Road

98 Taklamakan Desert

99 Part of the Silk Road

100 The Himalayas

101 The Indian Ocean

102 The Americas

103 Pre-Columbian contact with the Americas?  Circumstantial Evidence  Cotton  Sweet potatoes

104 The Olmecs and Mayas

105 Olmec Sculptures

106 Mayan Architecture


108 Mayan Calendar

109 Native American Civilizations  High caloric foods: maize, squash, etc.  No large animals suitable for domestication, thus no diseases  Little technology  Little metallurgy  Well organized societies with governments and cities  Cyclical world view

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