22Mycenaean Decline Conflict between Troy and Mycenae Population decline in citiesCa 1100 BCE, cities abandoned
23BCE: Greek Dark AgesDorians move into Greek mainland and take controlSedentary agricultural, non-urbanMountainous topography, irregular coastline precluded unityThin, rocky soil encouraged fishing and trading rather than farming
32Peisistratus: Tyrant of Athens Seized power unlawfullyContinued Solon’s reforms
33Cleisthenes: Father of Democracy All citizens members of the Assembly (direct democracy)Citizens: male property owners over 21, born in AthensCouncil of 500 the governing bodyAssembly met in the agora (market place)
48Peloponnesian Wars 431-404 BCE Sparta and other Greek city-states attacked AthensAthens surrendered after an epidemic killed large numbers of its citizens, including Pericles.Sparta required Athens to tear down its walls and submit to Spartan rule.
50Greek Philosophy Individualism Ethical Behavior, sense of right and wrongSeparate from religious beliefs
51Socrates 469-399 BCE Know Thyself Question Everything Only the Pursuit of Goodness brings HappinessCondemned to Suicide for “Corrupting the Youth of Athens”
52Plato 427-347 BCE Student of Socrates “The Republic”: philosopher-kingsFounder of The Academy“The Prisoners in the Cave” and the Ideal Forms.
53Aristotle 384-322 BCE Student of Plato Founder of The Lyceum Scientific MethodThe Golden Mean (moderation)Logic
54Alexander The Great 356-323 BCE Son of King Philip of Macedon, who had conquered GreeceStudent of Aristotle“Greek mind”Became King at age 21 and set out to conquer the world.
55Conquered the Persian Empire, Egypt, and the Fertile Crescent. Eventually pushed to Indus River ValleyEncouraged “Hellenization” of Middle Eastern culturesResulted in Cultural Diffusion and development of Hellenistic culture throughout his empireDied of fever at age 33.
75Emperor Constantine I 306-337 Legalized Christianity with the Edict of Milan 313Established new capital at Byzantium, renamed ConstantinopleEastern Roman Empire eventually became the Byzantine EmpireWestern Roman Empire weakened and collapsed in 476
77Divisions Among Christians Arguments over the nature of Christ and His relationship to GodBishop Athanasius: Jesus is Son of God and identical to God.Bishop Arius: Jesus was born human and was created by God. He was similar, but not identical, to God.
78Council of Nicaea 325Meeting of Church leaders called by Emperor Constantine to determine true Christian belief.Arius and his followers (Arians) were declared heretics (false believers).Nicene Creed written to summarize basic Christian beliefs.
80Final Division of the Church Western Christians followed the Roman Catholic Church under the Pope’s leadership.Eastern Christians followed the Eastern Orthodox Church under the leadership of the Byzantine Emperor and the Patriarchs.In 1054, a final split occurred over priestly celibacy.
84Fall of the Classical Empires All three Empires faced economic decline, corruption from within, and other weaknesses.Most importantly, all three suffered from invasions of pastoral nomadic people, especially the . . .
86Spread of Major Religions As the classical empires declined, major religions spread into new areas, bringing other cultural changes with them.Hinduism to Southeast AsiaBuddhism to China, Korea, JapanChristianity to Northern Europe (Roman Catholicism) and Eastern Europe and Russia (Eastern Orthodoxy.)
87Similarities of the Universal Religions All focused on the need to prepare for an eternal afterlife, rather than seeking aid for present problems.All offered universal salvation, including lower classes and women.Buddhism and Christianity believed in especially holy people: bhodissatvas and saints.
88Northern EuropeChristian missionaries from Rome brought the new religion to the north using the Roman road system.Monasteries in Northern and Western Europe preserved books and manuscripts from the classical era.
95Africa “The Dark Continent”?? Desertification led to Bantu migrations Iron technologyEthiopia, Kush, Axum under Christian, Egyptian influenceCenter of trade and caravan routes
96Cross cultural Trade in the Post-Classical Period Trade occurred among Europeans, but Europe was too backwards to be too involved in cross cultural tradeVikings linked Northern Europe with the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions.Africa was linked to Europe, Mediterranean, and Indian Ocean regions via ships and caravan routes.Missionaries and Merchants carried cultural changes along trade routes.
109Native American Civilizations High caloric foods: maize, squash, etc.No large animals suitable for domestication, thus no diseasesLittle technologyLittle metallurgyWell organized societies with governments and citiesCyclical world view