Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4-5: Classical Greece and Rome and the end of the Classical Era. AP World History, Mr. Bartula."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4-5: Classical Greece and Rome and the end of the Classical Era. AP World History, Mr. Bartula
Minoan Civilization Crete, ca 1700 BCE
Fertile Soil Isolation Limited Resources encouraged immigration, trade Trade and contact with Egypt, Mesopotamia, other Mediterranean islands Wealthy Little evidence of military
Artistic Social and Gender Equality Anthropomorphic religion with Goddesses dominant
The Palace of Knossos
Linear A and B
Ca 1450-1500 BCE: Eruption of Thera
The Mycenaeans Settled in mainland Greece before and after the Minoan collapse Minoan weakness allowed Mycenaeans to gain strength
Mycenean Culture WarlikePatriarchal Adapted Minoan culture Monarchies Merchants and traders Wealth concentrated in hands of monarchs Major cities: Mycenae, Tiryns, Troy
The Real Trojan War
The Mask of Agamemnon
Mycenaean Decline Conflict between Troy and Mycenae Population decline in cities Ca 1100 BCE, cities abandoned
1100-750 BCE: Greek Dark Ages Dorians move into Greek mainland and take control Sedentary agricultural, non-urban Mountainous topography, irregular coastline precluded unity Thin, rocky soil encouraged fishing and trading rather than farming
Development of the Polis Ca 800 BCE: Trade revived Market places formed in villages Small villages combined for better trade and self-defense City-states developed around acropolises
Classical Greece ca 750- ca 350 BCE
Classical Greece Independent city- states (polises) Two dominant city states: Athens and Sparta Patriarchal Polytheistic
Athenian Political Development All polises began as monarchies Monarchies were replaced by oligarchies: rule by a few. Oligarchies are also called aristocracies or timocracies: rule by the wealthy.
Peisistratus: Tyrant of Athens Seized power unlawfully Continued Solon’s reforms
Cleisthenes: Father of Democracy All citizens members of the Assembly (direct democracy) Citizens: male property owners over 21, born in Athens Council of 500 the governing body Assembly met in the agora (market place)
Athenian Military Hoplites: citizen soldiers Phalanx
Sparta Militarist Government by Two Kings Social and Gender Equality
The Persian Wars 490-480 BCE
The Persian Empire Zoroastrian Monarchy Powerful Military Highly Civilized
Battle of Marathon 490 BCE 26 miles from Athens Athenian hoplites using phalanx defeated Persians Great event in Athenian history Persians barely noticed
Second Persian War 480 BCE Persian King Xerxes launched major invasion of Greece 150,000 man army 600 ship navy
The Golden Age of Athens 480-404 BCE Athens dominant city-state, led Delian League Rich and powerful Under Pericles, magnificent architecture
Peloponnesian Wars 431-404 BCE Sparta and other Greek city-states attacked Athens Athens surrendered after an epidemic killed large numbers of its citizens, including Pericles. Sparta required Athens to tear down its walls and submit to Spartan rule.
Greek Philosophy Individualism Ethical Behavior, sense of right and wrong Separate from religious beliefs
Socrates 469-399 BCE Know Thyself Question Everything Only the Pursuit of Goodness brings Happiness Condemned to Suicide for “Corrupting the Youth of Athens”
Plato 427-347 BCE Student of Socrates “The Republic”: philosopher-kings Founder of The Academy “The Prisoners in the Cave” and the Ideal Forms.
Aristotle 384-322 BCE Student of Plato Founder of The Lyceum Scientific Method The Golden Mean (moderation) Logic
Alexander The Great 356-323 BCE Son of King Philip of Macedon, who had conquered Greece Student of Aristotle “Greek mind” Became King at age 21 and set out to conquer the world.
Conquered the Persian Empire, Egypt, and the Fertile Crescent. Eventually pushed to Indus River Valley Encouraged “Hellenization” of Middle Eastern cultures Resulted in Cultural Diffusion and development of Hellenistic culture throughout his empire Died of fever at age 33.
Alexander’s Empire After His Death Divided by his generals Hellenistic culture, cross-cultural trade continued Linked Mediterranean with India, China Preserved Greek culture
Early Roman History Italian Peninsula Greek influence Etruscan influence Cultural Copying: Greek religion and Roman religion
Roman Culture Patriarchal Agrarian Practical rather than Philosophical Engineering, Architecture, Administration.
The Roman Republic 509-44 BCE Patricians vs Plebeians Senate Assembly Consuls Tribunes Dictators
The Punic Wars 264-146 BCE Rome vs Carthage Rome victorious Roman control of Mediterranean “Mare Nostrum” Roman tolerance Expansion of slavery Unemployment Instability
The Civil Wars 133-31 BCE Struggles between senators and generals Julius Caesar Octavian became sole ruler after Battle of Actium 31 BCE
The Pax Romana 31 BCE- 180 CE Octavian became Emperor Augustus Emperors held sole power Roman armies maintained law and order No clear line of succession to the throne.
Decline and Fall of Rome “barbarian invasions” after 180 CE Economic decline Corruption and luxury Lead poisoning? Christianity
Christianity Jewish religious beliefs Zoroastrianism(?) Greco-Roman philosophy Jesus Paul Roman persecutions
Division of the Empire Emperor Diocletian 284-305 divided the Empire into East and West Response to invasions, Economic decline
Emperor Constantine I 306-337 Legalized Christianity with the Edict of Milan 313 Established new capital at Byzantium, renamed Constantinople Eastern Roman Empire eventually became the Byzantine Empire Western Roman Empire weakened and collapsed in 476
Divisions Among Christians Arguments over the nature of Christ and His relationship to God Bishop Athanasius: Jesus is Son of God and identical to God. Bishop Arius: Jesus was born human and was created by God. He was similar, but not identical, to God.
Council of Nicaea 325 Meeting of Church leaders called by Emperor Constantine to determine true Christian belief. Arius and his followers (Arians) were declared heretics (false believers). Nicene Creed written to summarize basic Christian beliefs.
Final Division of the Church Western Christians followed the Roman Catholic Church under the Pope’s leadership. Eastern Christians followed the Eastern Orthodox Church under the leadership of the Byzantine Emperor and the Patriarchs. In 1054, a final split occurred over priestly celibacy.
The Spread of Civilization and the End of the Classical Era By 200 CE three great empires dominated Eurasia: The Roman Empire Han China Mauryan-Gupta India
Fall of the Classical Empires All three Empires faced economic decline, corruption from within, and other weaknesses. Most importantly, all three suffered from invasions of pastoral nomadic people, especially the...
Hsiung-nu (aka the Huns)
Spread of Major Religions As the classical empires declined, major religions spread into new areas, bringing other cultural changes with them. Hinduism to Southeast Asia Buddhism to China, Korea, Japan Christianity to Northern Europe (Roman Catholicism) and Eastern Europe and Russia (Eastern Orthodoxy.)
Similarities of the Universal Religions All focused on the need to prepare for an eternal afterlife, rather than seeking aid for present problems. All offered universal salvation, including lower classes and women. Buddhism and Christianity believed in especially holy people: bhodissatvas and saints.
Northern Europe Christian missionaries from Rome brought the new religion to the north using the Roman road system. Monasteries in Northern and Western Europe preserved books and manuscripts from the classical era.
Viking Voyages The Vikings sailed from Scandinavia throughout Western Europe and over the Atlantic Ocean to Iceland and Greenland
Polynesian and Oceanian Migrations
Africa “The Dark Continent”?? Desertification led to Bantu migrations Iron technology Ethiopia, Kush, Axum under Christian, Egyptian influence Center of trade and caravan routes
Cross cultural Trade in the Post- Classical Period Trade occurred among Europeans, but Europe was too backwards to be too involved in cross cultural trade Vikings linked Northern Europe with the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions. Africa was linked to Europe, Mediterranean, and Indian Ocean regions via ships and caravan routes. Missionaries and Merchants carried cultural changes along trade routes.
The Silk Road
Part of the Silk Road
The Indian Ocean
Pre-Columbian contact with the Americas? Circumstantial Evidence Cotton Sweet potatoes
The Olmecs and Mayas
Native American Civilizations High caloric foods: maize, squash, etc. No large animals suitable for domestication, thus no diseases Little technology Little metallurgy Well organized societies with governments and cities Cyclical world view