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Ancient Greece Chapter 5 Geography Land & islands, many miles of coastline, inlets, bays, deep harbors Seas – Aegean, Mediterranean, Ionian Poor resources.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece Chapter 5 Geography Land & islands, many miles of coastline, inlets, bays, deep harbors Seas – Aegean, Mediterranean, Ionian Poor resources."— Presentation transcript:


2 Ancient Greece Chapter 5


4 Geography Land & islands, many miles of coastline, inlets, bays, deep harbors Seas – Aegean, Mediterranean, Ionian Poor resources on land (couldn’t farm) Led to increased sea travel, trade, imports

5 Geography Land - very mountainous (Mt. Olympus) Difficult to unite under one government, divided the people, became fiercely independent (city-states) Climate – moderate (Mediterranean) temperature, led to outdoor activities – shopping, civic meetings, athletics, interaction


7 First Greeks Minoans from Crete Wealthy traders, large homes, fancy clothes, jewelry Ended by earthquake, volcano, tidal wave?

8 Mycenaeans Mycenae – built on steep hills Fortified with stone walls, bronze age Farmers, traders, warriors Trojan War (1200 BCE) Greek kings attacked Troy in Asia Minor Greek’s wife stolen by Trojan man Archaeological evidence that this was true

9 Dorians 1200 BCE – 800 BCE Mycenaean civilization collapsed From North of Greece came with iron weapons Little skill, less advanced Trade and progress at a stand still Skill of writing lost Dark Ages

10 Homer Blind poet Depended on spoken word (bards – storytellers) Wrote long epics – ideals of heroism, excellence, courage, honor Interested in individuals; heroes compete for glory The Iliad and The Odyssey (750 BCE) about the Trojan War



13 Early Greek Leaders Draco – 621 BC - codified Athenian laws provided severe punishments ; written laws mean judges can’t show favoritism or make up laws; (“draconian” = harsh or severe) Solon – 594 BC – canceled land mortgages, freed people enslaved for debt, allowed male citizens to serve on juries, granted commoners right to vote in Assembly

14 Leaders cont. Cleisthenes – 508 BC – expanded democracy by extending citizenship; began practice of ostracism – banishing any citizen deemed dangerous to the state Pericles – 461 BC – popular leader; opened government to all men, paid salaries to public officials – The Age of Pericles or The Golden Age – height of democracy; art, science, trade, manufacturing thrived

15 Types of governments in Greece Monarchy – one-man rule (king) Aristocracy – rule by a small group of nobles Oligarchy – rule by few Tyranny – rule by one man who seized power, favored by some people (unlike today’s definition) Democracy – rule by the people

16 Drawbacks of Athenian Democracy Direct – more fair but all had to vote personally (5,000 – 7,000) Women had few rights and opportunities Slavery played major role Orators (speakers) often used forceful and coercive language rather than logic to sway voters.

17 Athens  Polis - city-state (basic political unit)  Acropolis – hill, central meeting place  Agora – below hill, open place for meetings  Citizens - those who took part in govt.  Hoplites – heavily armed infantry soldiers  Phalanx – marching formation shoulder to shoulder

18 Ruins of Ancient Sparta

19 onstructing-history-the-acropolis

20 Athens cont.  Democratic society  The Assembly was the major political body  All male citizens belonged; all were equal & had freedom of speech  Jury system for court cases  Had to educate sons - participate in govt.  2 years military service at age 18

21 SPARTA  Military society & aristocracy  Harsh life  Invaded other cities to fulfill needs; greatest warriors in Greece  If a child was born sickly or deformed, they were left in hills to die

22 Sparta  At age 7, boys were sent to military; at 60 they could retire; girls got rigorous physical training also  Women were strong and fit to become mothers  Suspicious of new ideas - NO CHANGE  Sparta lagged far behind other cities in economic development


24 tans


26 Acropolis

27 Temple Athena Nike

28 Temple of Olympian Zeus

29 Sanctuary of Athena at Delphi

30 Amphitheater of Epidaurus

31 Persian Wars 499 BC Persians control largest empire Persians want revenge for Greek support of Ionian revolt (Greeks burned capital) Darius attacks Greece at (1) MARATHON Greeks outnumbered but win battle Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens (26 miles) to announce victory – died; modern day “marathon” Minor defeat for Persia but showed they could be beaten



34 Greek hoplite (soldier)-6 th c. BC

35 Persian Wars  480 BC-Xerxes, son of Darius, invades  Sparta leads the Greeks (united)  To delay Persia, the Spartans slow them at (2) THERMOPYLAE (a mountain pass)

36 Persian War cont.  Greeks lose (betrayed) & Athens burned; all Spartans die  Greeks lure Persian navy into the shallow waters of (3) SALAMIS - Greeks victorious  (4) PLATAEA – war finally ends

37 Leonidas & the Spartans hold the Persians at Thermopylae pass

38 Battle of Salamis, 480 BC

39 Thermopylae


41 Leonidas

42 Persian War: Turning Point End of Persian expansion west Persians don’t conquer Europe Ushers in the Golden Age of Athens Classical age begins – art, literature, commerce flourish Greek city-states maintain their independence; Athens dominates

43 Golden Age of Athens  Pericles led Athens in this period (461 BC)  Delian League – defensive alliance; Athens led  Peloponnesian League – led by Sparta  Athens stood for all that was the best in Greek civilization  Deeply committed to democracy; Assembly

44 The Agora

45 Classical Greece Writers Philosophers Pottery Olympics Religion Historians Sculpture Architecture

46 Philosophy – “Love of Wisdom” Socrates – used questioning method (Socratic method) –Examine one’s life –Convicted of corrupting youth; killed (drank hemlock) Plato – Student of Socrates (427-347 BC) started The Academy –The Republic – first book on political science (did not favor democracy )


48 Philosophy cont. Aristotle (384-322 BC) wrote on philosophy, science, & govt. Tutored Alexander the Great.


50 History Herodotus – “father of history” – described the Persian invasion; embellished with fable and superstition; not very accurate Thucydides – accurate account of Peloponnesian War; eyewitness accounts; facts

51 Theatre Dramas, outdoor amphitheatres Tragedies: –Aeschylus – Agamemnon; Persian Wars; gods provided justice –Euripedes – Medea, criticized war, prejudice, greed Comedies: –Aristophanes – satirized political leaders

52 Architecture Parthenon – most famous; temple to Athena (Wisdom) atop the Acropolis in Athens Use of columns – Doric, Ionic, Corinthian (elaborate, curly)

53 Science and Math Pythagoras – important principals of geometry Hippocrates – father of medicine, attributed disease to natural, not superstitious causes –Hippocratic Oath – uphold medical standards – do no harm

54 Amphora Vase

55 The Olympics 776 BC; held every 4 years Athletes traveled to Mt. Olympus to honor Zeus Glory in athletic competition Pentathlon most important event (5) – long jump, javelin, discus, foot race, wrestling Men only (naked) Prize – honor and fame for your city state

56 Religion – The Greek Gods Lived on Mt. Olympus (12) Were immortal They were “human-like” – fought, had human weaknesses Oracles to worship the gods


58 Democracy GREECE Direct Democracy – citizens were members of legislature Citizenship based on Athenian ancestry Women denied political rights Slavery permitted U.S. Representative Democracy – citizens elect representatives Citizenship based on American birth or naturalization Women – equal rights Slavery prohibited

59 Peloponnesian War (431 BC-404 BC)  Series of battles between Athens and Sparta  Sparta eventually wins (military superiority)  Greece weakened over next century by fighting  Growing power to the North, Macedonia goes unnoticed  End of classical Greece

60 Alexander the Great  Philip II of Macedonia, Alexander’s father, had conquered most of Greece by the time of his death  336 BC-Alexander from Macedonia (north of Greece) becomes King (age 20)  334 BC - Alexander invades Persian empire & wins major victory in Asia Minor



63 Alexander the Great Conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt – founded Alexandria 331 BCE – defeated Persians again and ended Persian rule 327 BCE – Wants to reach Indus River – after 3 years his men have had enough! 323 BCE – Dies at age 32

64 Alexander the Great – Hellenistic Age Global view – believed non – Greeks were equal; encouraged men to marry Persians Hellenistic – mix of Greek and Middle Eastern culture (Indian too) Alexandria, Egypt – key city; home to poets, scholars, writers, scientists, philosophers; great library Built temples, baths, theatres, statues, etc.

65 Contributions - Hellenistic Aristarchus – Proposed that earth revolved around sun (not widely supported) Ptolemy – Earth at center of universe Eratosthenes – believed earth was round, computed circumference Euclid - basis of geometry Archimedes – pi, lever and pulley

66 Hellenistic contributions cont. Epicurianism (philosophy) – humans were free to follow self-interest, pursuit of pleasure and happiness, virtuous conduct, absence of pain Stoicism – founded by Zeno; live in harmony with god; daily problems would not disturb you, bear whatever life offers (stoic) Sculpture – Colossus of Rhodes 100 ft. bronze



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