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Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 7 The Empires of Persia.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 7 The Empires of Persia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Chapter 7 The Empires of Persia

2 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 Persian Empires Contemporary Iran Four major dynasties  Achaemenids ( BCE)  Seleucids ( BCE)  Parthians (247 BCE-224 CE)  Sasanids ( CE)

3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 Achaemenid Empire ( BCE) Migration of Medes and Persians from central Asia, before 1000 BCE  Indo-Europeans Capitalized on weakening Assyrian and Babylonian empires Cyrus (r BCE) founder of dynasty  “Cyrus the Shepherd” Persepolis-capital  Victory over Lydia (Croesus) Peak under Darius (r BCE)  Ruled Indus to the Aegean  Capital Persepolis

4 4 Cyrus the Great 580 – 529 B. C. E.  A tolerant ruler  he allowed different cultures within his empire to keep their own institutions.  The Greeks called him a “Law-Giver.” he Jews called him “the anointed of the Lord.” (In 537, he allowed over 40,000 to return to Palestine).

5 5 Darius the Great (526 – 485 B. C. E.)  Established a tax-collecting system. CCoins  Divided the empire into districts called SATRAPIES.(Governor)  Built the great Royal Road system.  Established a complex postal system.  Created a network of spies called “the King’s eyes and ears.”

6 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 Achaemenid Administration: The Satrapies 23 Administrative divisions (Mesopotamians) Satraps Persian, but staff principally local System of spies, surprise audits  Minimized possibilities of local rebellion Standardized currency for taxation purposes * Massive road building*, courier services (Her.) Toleration, laws

7 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 7 Technologies Qanat: System of underground canals  Avoided excessive loss to evaporation Extensive road-building  Persian Royal Road 1,600 miles, some of it paved  Courier service*(H)

8 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 Persian “Royal Road”

9 9 Ancient Persepolis

10 10 Persepolis

11 11 The People of Persepolis

12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 Decline of the Achaemenid Empire Policy of toleration under Cyrus, Darius  Rebuilding of Temple in Jerusalem Xerxes ( BCE) attempts to impose Persian stamp on satrapies Increasing public discontent

13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Persian Wars ( BCE) Rebellious Greeks in Ionia Peninsular Greeks join in Persians defeated at Marathon (490 BCE), retreated Alexander the Great conquers the Achaemenid Empire ( BCE)

14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 Seleucid Empire* Alexander the Great dies suddenly Generals divide empire, best part goes to Seleucus (r BCE) Attacked by rebellion in India, Roman 83 B.C.E., invasion of Parthians

15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 The Achaemenid and Selucid Empires, BCE

16 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 Parthian Empire Seminomadic Parthians drive Seleucus out of Iran Federated governmental structure Especially strong cavalry Weakened by ongoing wars with Romans Fell to internal rebellion Ctesiphon-capital of Parthian & Sasanid

17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Sasanid Empire ( CE) Claimed descent from Achaemenids Continual conflicts with Rome, Byzantium in the west, Kush in the east Overwhelmed by Arab conquest in 651 Persian administration and culture absorbed into local Islamic culture

18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 The Parthian and Sasanid Empires, 247 BCE-651 CE

19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Persian Society Early steppe tradition-Aryans  Warriors, priests, peasants  Family/clan kinship very important Creation of bureaucrat class with empire  Tax collectors  Record keepers  translators

20 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 Slave Class Prisoners of war, conquered populations Debtors Children, spouses also sold into slavery Principally domestic servitude  Some agricultural labor, public works

21 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 Persian Economy Several areas exceptionally fertile Long-distance trade benefits from Persian road- building Goods from India especially valued

22 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Zoroastrianism Early Aryan influences on Persian religious traditions Zarathustra (late 7 th -early 6 th c. BCE) Prophet of Ahura Mazda, against Angra Mainu Priests of Zarathustra known as Magi Oral teachings until Sasanid period composed Gathas

23 23 Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 6c BCE : Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words “Tree of Life”

24 24 Extent of Zoroastrianism

25 25 Dualistic Battle of Good vs. Evil Ahura Mazda “Holy Spirit” Ahriman “Destructive Spirit”

26 26 Zend-Avesta (The “Book of Law”) The “Sacred Fire”  the force to fight evil.

27 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 Fortunes of Zoroastrianism Under Alexander: Massacre of Magi, burning Zoroastrian temples Weak Parthian support Major revival under Sasanids, persecution of non- Zoroastrians Discrimination under Islam Influences

28 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28 Other Religious Groups in the Persian Empire Major Mesopotamian communities of Jews Composition of the Talmud, c. 500 CE  “constitution of Judaism” Buddhism, Christianity and Manichaeism also survived


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