Presentation on theme: "Early World History Indo-Europeans to the Middle Ages."— Presentation transcript:
Early World History Indo-Europeans to the Middle Ages
Indo-European Invasions Triggered by Flooding of Black Sea 5600 B.C.
Indo-Europeans Indo-Europeans (Aryan language) – Nomadic tribes –From Steppes of Asia –Herders and Grazers –Warfare using horses –Swept into Old Europe, Middle East, India starting about 5,000 BC Hittites
Indo-Europeans Religion of war and male domination –Male gods of sky, thunder, war and mountains Warrior Priests Imposed ideology –Male dominance –Hierarchy Thor
Indo-European Conquerers Aryans in India Hittites and Mittani in the Fertile Crescent Luians in Anatolia (Turkey) Kurgans in eastern Europe –Battle-Axe People Achaeans, Dorians in Greece
Diffusion of Indo-European Languages
Language Family Tree thebrain.mcgill.ca/.../i_10_s_lan_1b.jpg
Before Indo -Europeans Sedentary agrarian society Fertility and nature worshiped Goddess gave birth to –World –Agriculture Priests male and female Women’s status similar to men’s –Graves equal Fertility Figurine
After Indo-Europeans Herding introduced Warfare, war culture dominates Fortifications built Male War Gods worshiped –Male dominated society, religion Goddess loses status –Killed or raped by male god –Becomes consort of male god –Becomes goddess of war Women lose status in society –Owned by fathers then husbands –Graves unequal
City states Elites Religion Crop domestication Animal agriculture Trade Metallurgy Population explosion Bronze Age weapons
Mesopotamia Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates fertilized soil Irrigation, drainage produced early abundance Competition and warfare between city states: –Ur –Uruk –Nippur –Babylon –Kish –Nineveh –Assur, etc. Fertile Crescent
Mesopotamia Over-salinization reduced wheat productivity in south by 2,000 B.C.: –political power shifted north Eventual large scale ecological destruction –Fields and pastures worked until barren –Forests destroyed for Fuel ship building
Egypt Relative geographical isolation: strong central government, religion Unification of North and South Nile by 3,500 B.C. 2,000 year dynasty ended in Persian conquest 500 B.C.
Egypt Yearly flooding of Nile fertilized soil. Irrigation, drainage controlled by Pharaoh Abundant crops: wheat. –Later would be conquered for its productivity
Indus Valley Civilization Arose 3000 BC Contemporary of Egypt, Mesopotamia Lasted longer –1500 years Conquered by Aryans from north
Aryan Invasion of India Aryans invaded 1750 BC Indus, then Ganges valleys Horse and herding culture Vedas and Caste system –Foundation of Hinduism Feudal Kingdoms spread through India –ruled by Brahmins (Priests)
Assyrian Empire: 600 B.C.
Assyrian War Bulletin (1000 B.C.) “Asshur my Lord commanded me to go forth…I covered the regions of Saraush and of Ammaush with ruins…I proved myself against their armies at the mountain of Aruma, I chastised them, I strawed the earth with their bodies as they had been beasts of the field; I took their cities in possession, I carried away their gods, I led them away captive, them and their goods and their treasures;
Assyrian War Bulletin “I burned the cities with fire, I destroyed them, I made them even with the ground, I made of them heaps and a desolation; I laid upon them the grievous yoke of my dominion, and in their presence I gave thanks unto Asshur my Lord.” “I slew two hundred and sixty fighting men; I cut off their heads and made pyramids thereof. I slew one of every two.”
Assyrian War Bulletin “I built a wall before the great gates of the city; I flayed the chief men of the rebels, and I covered the wall with their skins. Some of them were enclosed alive in the bricks of the wall, some of them were crucified on stakes along the wall; I caused a great multitude of them to be flayed in my presence, and I covered the wall with their skins. I gathered together the heads in the form of crowns, and their pierced bodies in the form of garlands.”
Biblical Warfare Saul instructed by God to destroy the Amelekites (1000 B.C.): “Spare no one; put them all to death, men and women, children and babes in arms, herds and flocks, camels and asses.” -- I Samuel 15:3
Persian Empire: 525 B. C.
The World: 500 B.C.
Empire of Alexander the Great: 323 B. C.
Greek Influence Alexander the Great conquered the Achaemenid Persian Empire 323 B.C. Introduced Hellenistic culture to the mideast Maintained by subsequent Greek rulers until 130 B. C. Greeks colonized southern Italy and Sicily for grain growing
Roman Empire Romans conquered Italy and Sicily, Romans then conquered the entire Greek world (except for Persia): –Asia Minor –Mesopotamia –Egypt –Much of Europe
Roman Empire: Wheat Empire Roman empire dependent on wheat to feed soldiers, populace of Rome Roman forts were granaries designed to hold a year supply of wheat in case of siege –Soldier’s rations were 3 pounds of wheat a day. –Barley was punishment rations The Roman garrison in Britain consumed 1,277.5 tons of grain/yr –Much of it was brought by ship from supply depots Roman Fort
Trade Routes of First Century A.D. Persians never conquered by Romans Persians established silk trading routes to China
Roman Trade A fleet of specialized grain carriers was used to import wheat from Egypt to Rome –Huge food giveaway program for citizens Romans depleted their treasury importing luxury items and spices from India –Could no longer support food giveaways or army –Led to collapse of Empire in West
Roman Inheritance Romans inherited 3000 years of Mid East Culture: –Writing –Art –Math –Science –Agriculture –Religion Romans passed this culture on to Europe
The World: 500 B.C.
Shang Dynasty in China BC First Chinese dynasty Yellow River Basin
Zhou Dynasty in China BC Yellow and Yangtze river basins Great Wall started in north
Ch’in Dynasty BC Warring states of China united Includes Yellow, Yangtze, and Xi River Basins
Han Dynasty 206 BC-220 AD Western expansion opens Silk road Southward expansion for rice production Central control of dams, canals, irrigation
T’ang Dynasty AD Grand Canal Opened –Links Yellow and Yangtze river basins –1100 miles long
Trade Routes of First Century A.D.
Expansion of Islam A.D.
Arab Empire Islam swept through Arabia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia A.D. Much of Hellenistic culture of Greeks and Romans lost Islam moved through North Africa, reaching Iberian Peninsula
Religions of Europe: A.D. Islam was a leader in science, math, and technology –Taught Europe during the Middle Ages Christianity in Europe split: –Roman Catholic –Eastern Orthodox Crusades against Islamic control of Holy Land: A.D.
Mongol Empire A.D. Mongols conquered most of Asia –China, Central Asia, Persia, to Danube River Great Military Achievement –Mobile army on Horseback Trade within China restricted –Treasury Depleted Foreign trade welcomed –Marco Polo visits China
Ottoman Empire A.D. Roman/Byzantine empire in Asia Minor conquered by Ottoman Turks 1176 A.D. Ottoman Empire expanded A.D. Trade routes to China and India controlled by Islamic/Ottoman rule Forced Europeans to explore alternate routes around Africa
Europe: 1400 A.D. Many warring countries and city states Many languages Culturally unified by Catholic Church –Roman Catholic church in West –Eastern Orthodox in East Effort to push Moslems out of Iberia Venice a center of trade with Moslems