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How much do you know about the Middle East???  1)Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East?  a. France and England  b. Saudi.

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Presentation on theme: "How much do you know about the Middle East???  1)Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East?  a. France and England  b. Saudi."— Presentation transcript:


2 How much do you know about the Middle East???  1)Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East?  a. France and England  b. Saudi Arabia  c. The United Nations  d. The United States

3  2) What language is spoken in Iran?  A. English  B. French  C. Farsi  D. Sufi

4  3) What are the two main religious sects in Islam? ___________________&___________________. 4) What is the most populous Islamic country in the world? a.Egypt b.Indonesia c.Iran d. Saudi Arabia

5 5) Which of following is Iraq? A B CD A B C D

6 How much do you know about the middle east? ○ Answers!! ○ 1. A - France & England ○ 2. C - Farsi ○ 3. Sunni & Shiite ○ 4. B – Indonesia (196 million people) ○ 5. C

7 Iran – Iraq War

8 Iran-Iraq War  Iraq Basics – Who? Ethnic Groups 1. Arabs = 2/3 of population 2. Kurds = 1/3 of population ○ Own Language & customs ○ Want their own state ○ Brutally suppressed in Iraq



11 Iran-Iraq War  Iraq Basics Who? Religion 1. Shiite – 3/5 of population: Believe Muslim leader should be a direct descendant of Mohammed 2. Sunni – 2/5 of population (Saddam Hussein): Believe leader should be a respected leader of the community  Main difference is over who should lead the Muslim community!!!


13 Iran-Iraq War  Baath Party = Party of Saddam Hussein  What does it do? Secular (non-religious) Gov’t. Uses oil money for government projects Hussein begins to eliminate opponents


15 Iran-Iraq War  What started the war? 1. Border disputes 2. Fear of Shiites (majority in Iraq) rebelling against Saddam (Sunni) – Why? Iranian Revolution & the rise of Ayatollah Khomeini (Iran=almost all Shiite)


17 Iran-Iraq War Timeline  Iraq’s Goals: 1. Remove Iran’s leaders (shiite) 2. Gain oil and land 3. Make Saddam a hero

18 Iran-Iraq War Timeline  September 22, 1980 Saddam Hussein invaded Iran and took a key waterway into the Persian Gulf  both sides attacked oil fields, attacked tankers, and set mines in the Persian Gulf  U.S. sent warships to protect oil tankers  U.S. ($200 mil. in arms) supported Iraq – Why?

19 Iran-Iraq War Timeline  Long, brutal war (about 8 years), including the use of chemical & biological weapons  more than a million combined deaths  Results in a Stalemate, UN cease-fire in 1988  U.S. puts sanctions on Iraq and decreases its support b/c of human rights violations





24 Persian Gulf War

25  Why??? 1. Iraq’s claim to land in Kuwait 2. Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil 3. Hussein thought no one would stop him


27 The Conflict  On August 2, 1990 the country of Iraq invaded and occupied the tiny country of Kuwait over a “supposed” dispute over oil.

28 United States Responds  President George H.W. Bush declared that the invasion “would not stand.”  Had full UN support!!!

29 United States Responds  Operation Desert Shield: American troops sent to protect Saudi Arabia  Operation Desert Storm: US bombs Iraqi military & select targets to LIBERATE KUWAIT!!!

30 Strategy 1. Six weeks of air attacks on strategic targets in Kuwait and Baghdad (Iraqi capital) to soften up Iraqi military 2. Ground forces move in to push Iraqi military out of Kuwait

31 Bombing of Baghdad


33 Outcome  American forces led by Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf would eventually annihilate the Iraqi forces with the world’s most advanced weapons.



36 F-16

37 “Highway of Death”

38 Kuwaiti Oil Fields Set Ablaze

39 Kuwaiti Oil Fields Set afire

40 Results 1. Iraq accepts border with Kuwait, surrenders all WMDs, destroys all WMD production capability 2. Oil for Food Program – Iraq can sell oil in exchange for food 3. Saddam represses Kurds & Shiites after the war – No Fly Zones

41 Ground War Assessment  Operation Desert Storm (ground) lasted only 100 hours.  ***Air Assault lasted 6 weeks leading up to the ground invasion  The Iraqi forces were totally destroyed by the American led Coalition forces.  100,000 Iraqis killed; 148 Americans

42 George Bush & Saddam Hussein

43 Air Support  American air superiority gave the coalition forces a huge advantage in this conflict.  American aircraft completed decimated Saddam Huessien’s forces.  Air superiority included: bombers, attack helicopters, fighter jets and other highly advanced weapons.

44 F-117a stealth  Designed to be virtually invisible to radar.  Nicknamed the “Wobblin Goblin” because of bumpy ride and outlandish appearance  Primary weapon (2,000 pound laser - guided bombs)  Targets in Gulf War included Iraqi command and control installations and also chemical and nuclear production and storage facilities.

45 Persian Gulf War

46 B-52

47 B-52 Stratofortress  US Airforce’s long range, large payload multi- role bomber.  Nicknamed BUFF - Big Ugly Fat Fellow  Can carry more than 70,000 lbs of bombs - nuclear, laser guided and conventional.  In Operation Desert Storm, B-52s were used to conduct round-the-clock carpet bombing attacks against Iraqi troop concentrations and defenses. In addition to high-explosive bombs, the B-52s saturated Iraqi positions with anti-personnel and anti-armor bombs.

48 Tomahawk cruise missile  Desert Storm was the first combat test of the cruise missile system. Highly successful.  In the war, Tomahawks were used to destroy surface-to-air missile sites, command and control centers, electrical power facilities and were credited with the destruction of Iraq's presidential palace.  Carry 1000 lbs computer or laser guided missiles - 550 miles per hour - up to 1500 miles

49 AH - 64

50 AH - 64 apache  Specifically designed for its attack role. It is heavily armored and is hard to kill.  Uses “Hellfire” anti-tank missiles that have range of 3.7 miles. Top speed 184 miles an hour.  30 mm laser directed gun also used - attached to pilot’s helmet; targeting information seen  Primary use in Gulf was to destroy tanks and armored vehicles - highly effective weapon.

51 S-70A

52 S-70A Blackhawk  Primary mission of the Blackhawk is as a troop carrier and and logistical support aircraft  Can carry 11 fully equipped troops.  Equipped with the Hellfire anti-tank missile and 50 calibre machine guns  Designed for low delectability.

53 AH-1W

54 AH-1W SuperCobra  US Marines attack helicopter.  Can carry both the TOW and Hellfire anti-tank missiles.  Also able to use the Sidewinder air- to-air missile.  Equipped also with a variety of rockets and 20 mm gatling guns.

55 A-10

56 A-10 Thunderbolt  Also known as the Warthog, Flying Gun, or the Tankbuster.  The A-10 was responsible for more than half of the Iraqi military inventory losses, including tanks, Scuds and helicopters.  Can carry up to ten Maverick air-to- surface missiles.  Avenger 30mm cannon, mounted in the nose of the aircraft. Can fire 4200 rounds a minute.

57 F -14

58 F-14 Tomcat  The F-14 Tomcat is the US Navy's carrier-based two-seat air defense, intercept, strike and reconnaissance aircraft  The F-14 is armed with a General Electric Vulcan M61A-1 20mm gun with 675 rounds of ammunition.  The aircraft can carry short-, medium- and long-range air-to-air missiles and, and air-to-ground ordnance including the Rockeye bomb and CBU cluster bomb

59 F-15 E

60 F-15E Strike Eagle  The F-15E dual-role fighter is an advanced long-range interdiction fighter and tactical aircraft  It is armed with air-to-air missiles that can be launched from beyond visual range, and has air-to-ground capability to penetrate hostile air and ground defenses to deliver up to 24,000lb of precision ordnance.  The aircraft is armed with an internal M-61 20mm Gatling gun, installed in the right wing root.

61 F-16 Fighting Falcon  The first of the US Air Force multi-role fighter aircraft, is the world's most prolific fighter.  Air-to-surface missiles carried on the F-16 include Maverick, HARM and Shrike missiles  The F-16 carries the Lockheed Martin LANTIRN infra-red navigation and targeting system.  The F-16 has a 20mm General Electric M61A1 multi-barrel cannon and the gunsight is interfaced to the cockpit HUD.

62 UAV

63 Drones  Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are either remotely or autonomous pilotless drones typically used for reconnaissance. UAVs  At least one UAV was airborne at all times during Desert Storm.  One of the most unusual surrenders took place when a Pioneer remotely-piloted vehicle droned above the battlefield, surveying potential targets. Five Iraqi soldiers waved white flags at its tiny television camera; it was the first time in history that men surrendered to a robot.

64 Air War Assessment  Began January 17, 1991 and lasted about 6 weeks until the ground attack began.  Air power was then used to assist the ground assault.  Air power gave the US an extreme advantage Tomahawk destroying Iraqi postion

65 The Ground War  On Feb 24, 1991 Marine divisions launched the ground offensive.  Gen. Schwarzkopf hatched his “Hail Mary” attack plan.  The ground assault by the Allies precipitated a general rout on the part of Iraqi forces positioned in Kuwait.

66 Desert Storm - Ground Offensive

67 M - 1A1

68 M1 - Abrams  Named for the late Gen. Creighton W. Abrams, former Army Chief of Staff  Principal U.S. heavy tank used in the Gulf War  M-1 mounts an M68E1 105 mm main gun and two 7.62mm NATO M240 machine guns.  Outranged Iraqi tanks by about 1,000 meters  Its ability to fire reliably when moving at speed (45 mph) over rough ground gave it a capability that proved valuable in the Gulf.

69 M - 109A6

70 M109 Paladin A6  Provides primary indirect fire support to heavy divisions and armored cavalry regiments.  The M109A6 is self propelled 155 mm howitzer.  It contains an on board ballistic computer and navigation system, an improved cannon and gun mount, automatic gun positioning, automotive improvements and driver night vision equipment.


72 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle  Provides a variety of wheeled vehicle platforms  Cargo/troop carrier, armament carrier, TOW missile system carrier, shelter carrier and two ambulance variants (2- and 4-litter).  Designed for use over all types of roads, in all weather conditions and are extremely effective in the most difficult terrain.  Perfect for use in desert operations

73 M2/M3

74 Bradley Fighting Vehicle  The BFVS is a lightly armored, fully tracked fighting vehicle that provides cross-country mobility, mounted firepower and protection from artillery and small-arms fire.  It is used in mechanized infantry and armored cavalry combat  M2 provides infantry squads with a light armored fighting vehicle; M3 provides scout and armored cavalry units with a vehicle for reconnaissance, screening, and security missions.


76 Multiple Launch Rocket System  The multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) delivers extreme firepower in a short time.  The MLRS consists of a launcher that holds two six-rocket canisters.  Primary missions are counter-battery fire and suppression of enemy air defense systems.  Each MLRS artillery rocket disperses 644 fragmentation bomblets over the target.  These munitions are both anti-armor and antipersonnel.

77 M-9

78 M9 Armored Combat Earthmover  The M9 ACE is a highly mobile armored tracked vehicle that provides combat engineer support to front-line forces.  Its tasks include eliminating enemy obstacles, maintenance and repair of roads and supply routes, and construction of fighting positions.  Used in the Gulf War to remove sand walls set up by Iraqis to slow down US offensive.

79 Objectives:  Identify the difference between “Desert Shield” and “Desert Storm”.  Describe weapons used by the United States in the air war against Iraq.  Describe weapons used by the United States in the ground war against Iraq.  Discuss the effectiveness of US weapons.

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