Presentation on theme: "Early Civilizations – Phoenicians, Hittites, and Hebrews day 1"— Presentation transcript:
1Early Civilizations – Phoenicians, Hittites, and Hebrews day 1 Warm-up QuestionsNotes Phoenicians and HittitesChart/ Map/Vocabulary through chariotsReading/ QuestionsHebrew notesVocab through DiasporaDifferentiation: Choose between reading worksheets or foldable (today Hebrews)Objective: SWBAT describe characteristics of the Phoenicians, Hittites, and Hebrews on a reading worksheet or foldable.What could happen if you leave alphabet soup on the stove and go out?Question
2Warmup Questions, Day 1 1. Indus Valley or Fertile Crescent ? The area shaded in red on the map was known as the ______________.2. Jericho or Stonehenge? was a Neolithic settlement located in the area depicted on the map.3. Anatolia or Media? Catal Hoyuk was a Neolithic settlement located in4. Iraq or Pakistan: The modern-day country located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers is _____________?5. monotheistic or polytheistic? Most early civilizations practiced this type of religion _________________.Fertile CrescentJerichoAnatoliaIraqpolytheistic
3Early Civilizations – Persian Empire and Nubia day 2 Warm-up QuestionsHebrews quizNotes on Persian EmpirePersia paragraphNubia notesFinish VocabPersian Empire and Nubia reading worksheets or foldableObjective: SWBAT describe characteristics of the Persian Empire and Nubia on a reading worksheet or foldable.Question:
4Warm-up Questions, Day 2 Phoenicians Iron Abraham Hebrews Which civilization were sea traders who set up colonies and invented the alphabet?The Hittites had superior tools and weapons because they were made of ___Abraham or Jesus The monotheism of this prophet became the basis for not only Judaism, but also Christianity and Islam.Hittites or Hebrews The descendants of Abraham became known as theWhat set of laws did Moses deliver after he led the Hebrews out of Egypt?Torah or Quran Which is the holy book or sacred writings of JudaismJericho or Jerusalem King David established this city as capital of Israel. It has religious significance for Judaism, Christianity and Islam.PhoeniciansIronAbrahamHebrewsTen CommandmentsTorahJerusalem
5Prehistory to First Civilizations– Unit Review day 3 Warm-up QuestionsTimeline NotesUnit ReviewFinish packetObjective: SWBAT describe characteristics of the Paleolithic Era, the Neolithic Era and Early Civilizations on a Test ReviewQuestion:
6Warm-up Questions, Day 3 Zoroastrianism tolerance Royal Road Judaism or Zoroastrianism What was the religion of the Persian empire?tolerance or cruelty The Persian treated those they conquered with___Royal Road or Silk Roads What did the Persians build to improve communication across the empire.Imperial bureaucracy or city-states What type of government did the Persians have?Israel or Egypt Which civilization had the greatest influence on Nubia?Upper Nile or Lower Nile Where was Nubia located?Sudan or Iran Persia is located in present-day _____.ZoroastrianismtoleranceRoyal RoadImperial bureaucracyEgyptUpper NileIran
7Prehistory to First Civilizations– TEST/Intro India Day 4 Warm-up QuestionsTestIndia Reading WksheetBegin NotesObjective: SWBAT describe characteristics of the Paleolithic Era, the Neolithic Era, and Early Civilizations on a TestHow did the students react when the electricity went out during a test?Question:
8Warm-up Questions (8 questions), Day 4 1AnatoliaMesopotamia (Sumer)3Tigris REuphrates RUrLabel the mapsWord bankEgyptMesopotamiaAnatoliaNeolithic Settlements in the Fertile CrescentAleppoJericho4Egypt2Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent
9Warm-up Questions, Day 4 5 6 China 7 Hebrews (Israel) Jerusalem 8 India: Indus ValleyJerusalemIndia: Indus ValleyPersian EmpireHebrews (Israel)China8Persian Empire
10Early Civilizations (2000 BCE – 500 BCE) Phoenicians, Hebrews, Persian Empire, and Kush
11PHOENICIANS Phoenicia Great seafaring traders who founded wealthy city-states in the Fertile Crescent along the Mediterranean coast (present-day Lebanon).Phoenicia
12set up colonies (lands controlled by a distant nation) Carthage became the most powerful colony
13Phoenician Accomplishments First Alphabet (phonetic symbols stand for sounds)22 letter alphabet (vs. 550 cuneiform characters)Basis of modern alphabetsPurple dye
14Great shipbuilders and seafarers Spread civilization and the alphabet through trade.Use of coins as well as the alphabet made trade much easier.
16HITTITES Settled in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey) Learned how to smelt iron from ore.
17Iron was stronger, sharper, and less expensive than other metals. Iron weapons and chariots helped forge the Hittite Empire.The process of purifying iron ore and working it into weapons and tools is complex.
18HEBREWSAbraham settled in the Fertile Crescent between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordon River (present-day Israel)His descendents became known as Hebrews.2000 BC
19Abraham and the Hebrews were the first monotheists Monotheism : belief in one god
20Abraham’s monotheism became the foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Abram was born in Ur of the Chaldees, located in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley region. From Ur, Abram and his family moved to Haran, about 600 miles (975 kilometers) to the northwest. There, at the age of 75, he received his calling from God: "The Lord had said to Abram, "Leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you." (Genesis 12:1-3)Abram obediently left for Canaan (today Israel) with his family, including his wife Sarai (later renamed Sarah) and his nephew Lot. He traveled down through the land, Shechem, Bethel, Ai, and right south toward the Negev. During that time The Lord appeared to him and told him that, "To your offspring I will give this land." (Genesis 12:7).Many significant (for Abram, and us) events of Bible History followed - his time in Egypt to escape the famine in the land, the birth of his son Ishmael (through whom the Arab nations of today count their ancestry to him) by Hagar, the covenant of circumcision when he was 99, God's changing of his name to Abraham, The Destruction Of Sodom (where Lot and his wife and daughters had went to live), and the birth of Isaac (through whom the Jews of today count their ancestry to Abraham). It was Isaac's descendants who were to inherit the land of Canaan (Israel). See Division Of The Land.An interesting point about Abraham is that although all bloodline Jews of today are descended from him, Abraham himself was not a Jew! Abraham's son Isaac, had a son Jacob (who was renamed Israel), who had 12 sons (from whom came The Tribes Of Israel), one of which was Judah, from whom came the Jews. The first "Jew" was Judah, Abraham's grandson (see The Chosen People). Both Jews and Arabs are equally descended from Abraham, but Abraham himself was neither "Jew" nor "Arab". Many fierce Middle East wars have since been fought between Abraham's children, right to the present time.Voltaire was of the opinion that Abraham descended from some of the numerous Brahman priests who left India to spread their teachings throughout the world; and in support of his thesis he presented the following elements: the similarity of names and the fact that the city of Ur, land of the patriarchs, was near the border of Persia, the road to India, where that Brahman had been born.The name of Brahma was highly respected in India, and his influence spread throughout Persia as far as the lands bathed by the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The Persians adopted Brahma and made him their own. Later they would say that the God arrived from Bactria, a mountainous region situated midway on the road to India. (pp )Bactria (a region of ancient Afghanistan) was the locality of a prototypical Jewish nation called Juhuda or Jaguda, also called Ur-Jaguda. Ur meant "place or town." Therefore, the bible was correct in stating that Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldeans." "Chaldean," more correctly Kaul-Deva (Holy Kauls), was not the name of a specific ethnicity but the title of an ancient Hindu Brahmanical priestly caste who lived in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Indian state of Kashmir."The tribe of Ioud or the Brahmin Abraham, was expelled from or left the Maturea of the kingdom of Oude in India and, settling in Goshen, or the house of the Sun or Heliopolis in Egypt, gave it the name of the place which they had left in India, Maturea." (Anacalypsis; Vol. I, p. 405.)"He was of the religion or sect of Persia, and of Melchizedek."(Vol. I, p. 364.)"The Persians also claim Ibrahim, i.e. Abraham, for their founder, as well as the Jews. Thus we see that according to all ancient history the Persians, the Jews, and the Arabians are descendants of Abraham.(p.85) ...We are told that Terah, the father of Abraham, originally came from an Eastern country called Ur, of the Chaldees or Culdees, to dwell in a district called Mesopotamia. Some time after he had dwelt there, Abraham, or Abram, or Brahma, and his wife Sara or Sarai, or Sara-iswati, left their father's family and came into Canaan. The identity of Abraham and Sara with Brahma and Saraiswati was first pointed out by the Jesuit missionaries."(Vol. I; p. 387.)The greatest test of Abraham came when God commanded him to sacrifice Isaac. Despite the grief and horror that he must have been experiencing, Abraham was actually about to go through with it before being stopped by God (the event occurred on what was then barren Mount Moriah - today, the Temple Mount in Jerusalem where sits The Dome of The Rock). God said to him, "I swear by Myself, declares The Lord, that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will surely bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky (see A Picture Of Heaven) and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed Me." (Genesis 22:16-18). Isaac was released unharmed.Abraham lived a good long life. After he died, he was buried in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre that he had purchased to bury his wife Sarah, who had died before him. Later, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob and Leah were all buried in the same place, known today as the "Tomb of Patriarchs" in Hebron - a place where many bloody confrontations between Abraham's children, Jew and Arab, have taken place - within a few yards/meters of Abraham's grave. I wonder what he would think of that? Or, what he would say to them if he were to one day awaken and walk outside?There was born of one man...as many descendants as the stars of heaven in number...Abraham and Sarah received a unique call and promise from God: They were to become the parents of a mighty nation. They would establish that nation in a distant land that God would give them. This promise, unusual in itself, was doubly astonishing since Abraham and Sarah were already old (100 and 90 years!). Yet the couple believed God's promise.
21MosesLed the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt to the “promised land”(Israel)Delivered the Ten Commandments1250 BThe youngest of these twelve sons was Joseph, who was sold by his brothers into slavery in Egypt, and there rose to a position of prominence. A famine in the land of Palestine forced the migration of Israel and his remaining sons into Egypt, where over several centuries they grew into a sizable minority element within the Egyptian population. In order to maintain control of this sizable Hebrew population, the Egyptian government instituted corvee, or a forced labor draft, among the Hebrews. Approximately 400 years after they followed Israel into Egypt, Moses, a Hebrew who had been raised in the Egyptian court, led the Hebrew people en masse back to Palestine. Moses was both the Liberator of the Hebrew people from bondage, and the Lawgiver of the nation of Israel. The figure at right is Michaelangelo's depiction of Moses shortly after he returned from Mount Sinai with the tablets of the Law, written by the finger of God. Interestingly, the statue of Michaelangelo, as well as other Renaissance works, show Moses with horns. This was due to a mistranslation. According to the book of Exodus, when Moses returned from his encounter with God on the Mountain, his face "shone" with light. The Hebrew term for 'horns' is very similar to that for 'shone.' When the translator picked up on the wrong term, the wording made such a powerful impression that for a generation or two Moses was depicted with antlers!
22Beliefs of Judaism The Religion of the Hebrews (Jews) One God Torah Ten Commandments
23The Ten CommandmentsState both religious and moral conduct in that they require that believers both worship God and live justly with one another
24The TorahHoly book of Judaism: contains the records and beliefs of the JewsThe first five books of the Old Testament of the BibleObviously, most of what is known of the history of Ancient Israel is derived from the Old Testament, and it should be realized from the onset that the historical interest of the Old Testament is secondary. Its primary concern is to relate the dealings of God with the people of Israel. The historical record is phenomenally accurate and lucid, but it is incidental to the larger purpose.Traditionally, the Hebrew Scripture have been divided under three large headings. The first of these, the Torah, or law, refers to the first five books of the Old Testament asserted by tradition to have been written by Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.
26David and Goliath (or how David became king of the Hebrews)
27Jerusalem Holy City of the Jews King David united the tribes of Israel and established Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.Today Jerusalem is a holy city to Muslims and Christians as well as Jews.About 1000 BC
28Western WallIn 70 AD the Romans destroyed the ancient Temple of Jerusalem.The West Wall of the Temple Mount is all that remains today.Jews consider this wall their most sacred shrine (holy site).They come from all over the world to pray at this shrine.Friday evening in the Old City of Jerusalem voices can be heard singing out as other voices join in devotions. The Sabbath, a holy day for the Jewish faith is beginning. The Jewish people gather before their most sacred shrine, "The Wailing Wall". This wall is the western wall of an ancient courtyard and for that reason it is also referred to as "The Western Wall." The Romans destroyed the Jewish Temple in 70 AD after the Jewish people revolted against Roman rule.The wall is the only remaining structure of the ancient Temple of Jerusalem. Inside the courtyard King Solomon's glorious temple once stood. The temple was destroyed and rebuilt several times until only part of the western wall remained. The wall is just outside of the Temple Mount and is considered to be Judaism's holiest site.Some of the ruins of the original temple can still be seen today. People built their houses all around the temple. On the top of the temple mount the priest would stand and blow their Shofar to call the people to prayer. Then, the Jews were exiled from their homes and it was years before they could return to Jerusalem to stay, but the temple was never rebuilt.The reason people pray at the wall are because it is believed to be the closest point to the Holy of Holies, the holiest room of the old temple. A Muslim mosque now occupies this site. This old tradition of praying at the wall began around AD when Rabbis claimed that God's presence still tarried at the location of the Holy of Holies. Sad to say, the wall has been an object of bickering between Muslims and Jews for centuries. When Jews began moving back into the territory in the 1800s the tenseness increased between the two religions.Jews come to the wall from all over the world. Many write prayers and messages on paper and stick them between the cracks. The men wear either a hat or yarmulka to show respect. At the wall you can hear some of them wailing or crying for the loss of their great temple. This is why the wall became known as "the Wailing Wall." Many events take place at the wall such as religious gatherings and celebrations. Today the area is under Jewish control since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War when Jerusalem captured Jordan.
29The site of the original temple is now occupied by a Muslim Mosque (Dome of the Rock). Ownership of these and other holy sites has been a source of bickering between Muslims and Jews for centuries.
31ExileJews were driven from their homeland by the Romans in AD The state of Israel ceased to exist for 1800 years.
32Diaspora Scattering of the Jews By the end of the first century BCE, Rome had taken over the eastern Mediterranean and the Jewish population was spread through many cities of the east. In the third and fourth centuries CE there were substantial Jewish settlements in most major eastern cities and many western provinces as well. By the end of the first century BCE, Rome had taken over the eastern Mediterranean and the Jewish population was spread through many cities of the east. In the third and fourth centuries CE there were substantial JewishJews migrated all around the Mediterranean Sea
33PERSIAN EMPIRE The largest empire in the world It stretched from The Nile to the Indus RiverPersia: Present-day IranNever able to conquer Greece
35Persian Rulers Treated conquered people with tolerance Developed an imperial bureaucracyBuilt an extensive road systemZoroastrianism (religion)Darius
36TolerancePersian rulers allowed the people they conquered to practice their own religions and follow their own customs.Palace of Darius
37BureaucracyA system of managing government through departments run by appointed officialsDarius divided his empire into provinces each run by a governor (satrap)It seemed good to Darius to appoint 120 satraps over the kingdom, that they should be in charge of the whole kingdom, and over them three commissioners (of whom Daniel was one), that these satraps might be accountable to them, and that the king might not suffer loss. (NASB) Dan. 6: The satraps had responsibility for managing the different provinces and various levels of government throughout the kingdom. They had responsibility for collecting taxes, sending recruits to Babylon for the army, and suppressing crime.
38Persian Road System Great Royal Road United the empire (provided a means of communication, trade, and governmental control).
39Zoroastrianism Early monotheistic religion founded by Zoroaster Belief in two opposing forces: good and evil, light and darkness, heaven and hell.1500 to 1200 BC
41KUSH Also called Nubia Located on the upper (southern) Nile Present-day Sudan
42Kush and EgyptIdeas and goods flowed along the Nile between Kush and Egypt(Lower Nile)Nubian born Egyptian Queen.Kush(Upper Nile)
43Gifts for the King from a country called Nubia Egypt dominated Kushfor 1000 yearsGifts for the King from a country called Nubia which was to the south of Egypt. Can you find gold rings, a baby leopard, a monkey , an ebony log?Gifts for the King from a country called Nubia
44Kush conquered Egypt and established its own dynasty on the Egyptian throne Pharoah Taharka BCShabaka was the brother of Piye, the Kushite king who conquered Upper and Lower Egypt reestablishing central authority in the politically unstable land. It should be noted that the Egyptians did not treat these Nubians as foreign invaders but rather as close allies; the vast similarities in culture would readily explain this. Though Piye chose to govern from Kush, Shabaka instead completed the total reunification of Egypt and ruled from Waset. It was during this time that the then already ancient religous doctrine, The Memphite Theology, was copied onto a granite stone. (Photo courtesy of Ancient Egypt)
45Kush was eventually conquered by the East African Kingdom of Axum
50Golden Age of MeroeAfter the Assyrians conquered Egypt, Kush continued to prosper in the booming trade between Africa, Arabia and IndiaIts last high point in ancient times was the state of Meroe (MAYR-o-way), a great cultural center whose scribes developed an alphabet around 180 BC to better express the Nubian language, which until then had been written with Egyptian hieroglyphs. The Meroitic alphabet is still largely undeciphered, and until linguists crack its code, the sizable number of remaining written records are inaccessible. O’Connor says once the linguistic puzzle has been solved, we’ll know more about the last days of ancient Nubia, which faded around 400 AD. In 500, Nubians turned from their own Egyptian-influenced religion to Christianity, and the region converted heavily to Islam a thousand years later.Scholars began e
51Nubian QueenNubian QueenAhmes NefertariAhmes Nefertariof Egypt around 1550 B.Cof Egypt around 1550 B.C