Presentation on theme: "& the Quest for Salvation"— Presentation transcript:
1& the Quest for Salvation Chapter 9:State, Society,& the Quest for Salvationin India
2The Mauryan and Gupta empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.
3India Before the Mauryan Dynasty 520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-west IndiaIntroduces Persian ruling pattern327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in IndiaTroops mutiny, departs after 2 yearsPolitical power vacuum
4Kingdom of MagadhaMost significant remaining kingdom after Alexander’s departureCentral Ganges plainEconomic strengthAgricultureTrade in Ganges valley, Bay of BengalDominated surrounding regions in north-eastern India
5Chandragupta Maurya Took advantage of power vacuum left by Alexander Overthrew Magadha rulersFounder of Maurya Empire - creates 1st unified Indian empire
7Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE Founder of Mauryan EmpireUnified northern India.Defeated the Persian general Seleucus.Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement.He feared assassination food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc.301 BCE gave up his throne & became a Jain.
8Kautilya (or Chanakya) Chandragupta’s advisor.Brahmin caste.Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra (advice manual).A guide for the king and his ministers:Supports royal power.The great evil in society is anarchy.Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!
9Chandragupta’s Government Like Persia & China, built a bureaucratic administrative system.Domestic policiesNetwork of spiesLegend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk, starves himself to death
10Ashoka (304 – 232 BCE) Grandson of Chandragupta Represents high point of Mauryan Empire, r BCEExpanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for southPositive leadership integrated Indian societyEst. PataliputraBetter known as a governor than conqueror
11AshokaReligious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in BCE.Dedicated his life to Buddhism.Built extensive roads.Conflict how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person?
12Ashoka’s law code Wrote law code on rocks or pillars (Stupas) Edicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan.Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic.10 rock edicts.Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
15Decline of the Mauryan Empire Economic crisis follows death of AshokaHigh costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenueFrequent devaluations of currency to pay salariesRegions begin to abandon Mauryan EmpireDisappears by 185 BCE
16Regional Kingdom: Bactria Northwestern IndiaRuled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaignsIntense cultural activity accompanies active trade
17Turmoil & a Power Vacuum: 220 BCE – 320 CE TamilsThe Maurya Empire is divided into many kingdoms.
18Regional Kingdom: Kush Nomads of Central AsiaRuled C CEMaintained silk road trade networkHigh point under the rule of Kashika, empire expands thruout So. Asia.
19The Gupta Dynasty Based in Magadha Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CESlightly smaller than Mauryan EmpireHighly decentralized leadershipFoundations for studies in natural sciences and mathematics
21Gupta Rulers Chandra Gupta I Chandra Gupta II Hindu revival. r. 320 – 335 CE“Great King of Kings”Chandra Gupta IIr CEProfitable trade with the Mediterranean world!Hindu revival.Huns invade – 450 CE
22Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 5c.He was following the path of the Buddha.He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including "untouchability," the social isolation of a lowest class that is doomed to menial labor.
25Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture. Gupta ArtGreatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
26Kalidasa The greatest of Indian poets. His most famous play was Shakuntala.During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.
27500 healing plants identified Printed medicinal guides Gupta Achievements1000 diseases classified500 healing plants identifiedPrinted medicinal guidesKalidasaLiteraturePlastic SurgeryMedicineInoculationsGupta IndiaC-sections performedSolar CalendarAstronomyMathematicsDecimal SystemThe earth is roundPI =Concept of Zero
28Gupta Decline Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5th c. CE Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault linesSmaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16th c.
29Economy: Towns and Manufacturing Manufactured goods in big demandDeveloped in dense network of small workshopsTrade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India
30Long-Distance Trade Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius Massive road-building projects under Persian ruleAlexander extends trade west to MacedonTrade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads
31Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Seasonal sea trade expandsSpring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-westTrade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean
32Society: Gender Relations Patriarchy entrenchedChild marriage common (8 year old girls married to men in 20s)Women encouraged to remain in private sphereMahabharata & Ramayana portrayed women as weak-willed and overly emotional
33Social Order Caste system from Aryan times Brahmins (priests) Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats)Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants)Shudras (serfs)
34Castes and GuildsIncreasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste systemJatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castesEnforced social order“outcastes” forced into low-status employment
35Wealth and the Social Order Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, ShudrasWealth challenges varna for status as lower castes often accumulated more wealth than their brahmin & kshatriya contemporaries
36Religions of Salvation in Classical India Social change generated resentment of caste privilegee.g. Brahmins free from taxation6th-5th c. BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quoCharvakas: atheists whose beliefs reflected the increasingly materialistic character of Indian society and economy
37Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic lifePromotes 7th c. movement based on UpanishadsEmphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings
38Ahimsa Principle of extreme non-violence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insectsAhimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.)
39Appeal of Jainism Rejected caste, jati distinctions Obvious appeal to underprivileged groupsBut asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement2 million Jainist Indians today
40Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563-483 BCE Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic lifeAbandoned comfortable life to become a monk
41Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment Intense meditation, extreme asceticism49 days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenmentAttained title Buddha: “the enlightened one”
42The Buddha and his Followers Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCEFollowers owned only robes, food bowlsLife of wandering, begging, meditationEstablishment of monastic communities
44Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma The Four Noble Truthsall life is sufferingthere is an end to sufferingremoving desire removes sufferingthis may be done through the eight-fold path(right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration)
45The Eightfold Path Right views Right intention Right speech Right conductRight livelihoodRight effortRight mindfulnessRight meditation
46Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati statusPhilosophy of moderate consumptionPublic service through lay teachingUse of vernacular, not SanskritMonasteries became important institutions in Indian society.
48StupasA stupa (from Sanskrit literally meaning "heap") is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of a Buddha or saint.
49Ashoka’s Support of Buddhism Personal conversion to BuddhismSaddened after violent war with KalingaBanned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in courtMaterial support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities
50Changes in Buddhist thought 3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CEBuddha considered divineInstitution of Boddhisatvas (“saints”)Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity
51Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer developmentIndia, China, Japan, Korea, central AsiaHinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier versionCeylon, Burma, Thailand
53Nalanda Buddhist Monastery Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicinePeak at end of Gupta dynastyHelped spread Indian thoughte.g. mathematical number zero
54Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditionsMahabharataRamayanaPromotes Rama and Sita as the ideal Hindu couple, devoted to each other though hardshipEmphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations
55The Bhagavad Gita “Song of the Lord” Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CEDialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war
56Hindu Ethics Emphasis on meeting class obligations (dharma) Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha)Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama)Salvation of the soul (moksha)
57Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in IndiaGupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support