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Slide 1 Development of Warfare in Ancient Times Major Carlos Rascon.

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1 Slide 1 Development of Warfare in Ancient Times Major Carlos Rascon

2 Slide 2 Introduction Early man were essential hunter gatherers. Their weapons were used to hunt and defend local groups. Since the survival of the tribe was based on their ability to gather enough food; tribes depended on the men, they could not afford to be in warfare. This presentation traces the development of warfare from early man to the Greeks. It is also important to note that even though this presentation focuses on the Western World, warfare also developing in Eastern World. Early man were essential hunter gatherers. Their weapons were used to hunt and defend local groups. Since the survival of the tribe was based on their ability to gather enough food; tribes depended on the men, they could not afford to be in warfare. This presentation traces the development of warfare from early man to the Greeks. It is also important to note that even though this presentation focuses on the Western World, warfare also developing in Eastern World.

3 Slide 3 Learning Objectives Know and trace the evolution of weapons from early man to the Assyrian Iron Age. Know and trace the evolution of weapons from early man to the Assyrian Iron Age. Know and describe the Assyrian military system, to include organization, siege tactics, and the use of terror. Know and describe the Assyrian military system, to include organization, siege tactics, and the use of terror. Know and describe the Persian military system. Know and describe the Persian military system. Know and describe the Greek military system to include; organization, phalanx and hoplites. Know and describe the Greek military system to include; organization, phalanx and hoplites. Be able to describe the battle at Marathon. Be able to describe the battle at Marathon.

4 Slide 4 Sources Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp ssyrian_Art/assyria_art_1.htm ssyrian_Art/assyria_art_1.htm ssyrian_Art/assyria_art_1.htm ssyrian_Art/assyria_art_1.htm

5 Slide 5 Trends in Early Warfare Introduction of military transport Introduction of military transport Introduction and decline of the chariot Introduction and decline of the chariot Increased use of cavalry Increased use of cavalry Introduction to iron and steel Introduction to iron and steel

6 Slide 6 Type of Weapons Early weapons were either hand held or projected through the air. Early weapons were either hand held or projected through the air. Classified as either shock or missile weapons. Classified as either shock or missile weapons. Shock weapons include; clubs which evolved into axes, pikes, spears and sword. Shock weapons include; clubs which evolved into axes, pikes, spears and sword. Missile weapons include; rocks which evolved into darts, javelins, arrows and sling. Missile weapons include; rocks which evolved into darts, javelins, arrows and sling. Initially weapons were made from rocks and stones, later replaced by bronze then iron. Initially weapons were made from rocks and stones, later replaced by bronze then iron.

7 Slide 7 Protective Armor The most important form of armor was the shield. The most important form of armor was the shield. Made of wood or leather hide stretched over a wooden frame. Made of wood or leather hide stretched over a wooden frame. Armor protected most vulnerable parts of the body; head, neck, torso and legs. Armor protected most vulnerable parts of the body; head, neck, torso and legs. Armor improved during the Bronze Age with reinforced steel. Armor improved during the Bronze Age with reinforced steel.

8 Slide 8 Tiglath-Pilesar 3 rd ( B.C.) He established the most efficient military system at that time. He established the most efficient military system at that time. He also established a militia organization and built the state around a standing army. He also established a militia organization and built the state around a standing army. Principal business of the Assyrian nation became war. Principal business of the Assyrian nation became war. Had a semi military bureaucracy that carried out the function of government at home and in conquered regions. Had a semi military bureaucracy that carried out the function of government at home and in conquered regions. Maintained improvements of weapons and training of his soldiers in the use of arms. Maintained improvements of weapons and training of his soldiers in the use of arms.

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10 Slide 10 Assyrian Army Was the first truly military society in history. Was the first truly military society in history. First to recognize the advantage of iron over bronze. First to recognize the advantage of iron over bronze. As early as 1000 B.C. their militia armies had been equipped with weapons, chariots and armor made of iron. As early as 1000 B.C. their militia armies had been equipped with weapons, chariots and armor made of iron. Army comprised of spearmen, archers, cavalry, chariots and siege crafts. Army comprised of spearmen, archers, cavalry, chariots and siege crafts.

11 Slide 11 Assyrian Army

12 Slide 12 Assyrian Spearmen The majority of the Army was composed of spearmen. The majority of the Army was composed of spearmen.

13 Slide 13 Assyrian Archers Archers were highly organized than other nations. Archers were highly organized than other nations. Their bows were stronger and arrows were tipped with iron. Their bows were stronger and arrows were tipped with iron. They were very proficient on the battle field. They were very proficient on the battle field.

14 Slide 14 Assyrian Chariots Main striking force of the army. Main striking force of the army. Initial attack; smashed into enemy’s infantry lines Initial attack; smashed into enemy’s infantry lines Manned by archers, drivers and shield- bearers whose armor was made of metal plates on a tunic. Manned by archers, drivers and shield- bearers whose armor was made of metal plates on a tunic.

15 Slide 15 Assyrian Cavalry Smallest element of the army. Smallest element of the army. Consisted of noblemen. Consisted of noblemen. Were the best trained and equipped. Were the best trained and equipped.

16 Slide 16 Fortifications Art of fortification was developed in the Middle East before 1000B.C. Art of fortification was developed in the Middle East before 1000B.C. Great walls of cities were almost invulnerable to the means of attack. Great walls of cities were almost invulnerable to the means of attack. Very economic Very economic - fewer troops to man walls - enemies limited technology of siege - enemies limited technology of siege tactics. tactics. Attacking armies could not afford the time and manpower it took to conquer fortified cities. Attacking armies could not afford the time and manpower it took to conquer fortified cities.

17 Slide 17 Assyrian Siege Crafts Assyrian greatly improved the techniques of siege crafts and attack of fortifications. Assyrian greatly improved the techniques of siege crafts and attack of fortifications. Siege crafts accompanied the army. Siege crafts accompanied the army. These included large wooden towers covered with dampened leather hides and heavy battering rams. These included large wooden towers covered with dampened leather hides and heavy battering rams. Siege craft tactics were developed by the Sumerians. Siege craft tactics were developed by the Sumerians. Video 10 min -Siege Tactics (Ballista & Catapult) Video 10 min -Siege Tactics (Ballista & Catapult)

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19 Slide 19 Terror Tactics This was another factor that contributed to the Assyrian success. This was another factor that contributed to the Assyrian success. Involved total war; killing every man, woman and child in captured cities. Involved total war; killing every man, woman and child in captured cities. They also enslaved entire populations conquered. They also enslaved entire populations conquered.

20 Slide 20 Persians Present day Iranians. Present day Iranians. Empire run by Monarchy Empire run by Monarchy Evolved on wide open plains Evolved on wide open plains –Heavy use of cavalry (initially chariots) and light infantry. –Heavy use of Composite bow (300M range) Coordinated attack with cavalry and bowmen. Coordinated attack with cavalry and bowmen. Employed Assyrian warfare tactics. Employed Assyrian warfare tactics.

21 Slide 21 Map of Persia

22 Slide 22 Persian Archers Large portion of the army consisted of bowmen. Large portion of the army consisted of bowmen. Archers were also mounted on horse back. Archers were also mounted on horse back.

23 Slide 23 Persian Light Infantryman

24 Slide 24 Persian Heavy Infantry

25 Slide 25 Persian Cavalry Persians understood the power of a fast cavalry. Persians understood the power of a fast cavalry. Gave more room for tactical maneuvers. Gave more room for tactical maneuvers. Rarely used armor. Rarely used armor. Never able to defeat a well organized phalanx. Never able to defeat a well organized phalanx.

26 Slide 26 Greeks Made up of individual city states. Made up of individual city states. Each state had it’s own culture, religion and militia. Each state had it’s own culture, religion and militia. Often fought amongst themselves. Often fought amongst themselves. Joined forces to defeat enemies. Joined forces to defeat enemies. Essentially did not have a professional army except for the Spartans. Essentially did not have a professional army except for the Spartans. Army made up of citizens. Army made up of citizens. Used the phalanx formation in battle. Used the phalanx formation in battle.

27 Slide 27 GREECE

28 Slide 28 Greek Hoplite Heavy infantry man Heavy infantry man Fought in the phalanx Fought in the phalanx Wore a helmet and body armor for protection. Wore a helmet and body armor for protection. Armed with a shield( hoplon), spear and a sword. Armed with a shield( hoplon), spear and a sword.

29 Slide 29 Spartan Hoplite Heavily armed infantry men Heavily armed infantry men Furnished their own armor. Furnished their own armor. Wore helmets with horse hair crests (made them look taller and fiercer). Wore helmets with horse hair crests (made them look taller and fiercer). Best trained of all Greek hoplites. Best trained of all Greek hoplites.

30 Slide 30 Greek Phalanx Usually 4-50 rows deep Usually 4-50 rows deep Only the front ranks fought Only the front ranks fought Middle ranks used spears; rear ranks acted as replacements. Middle ranks used spears; rear ranks acted as replacements. Formation drifted to the right due to shield on the left side. Formation drifted to the right due to shield on the left side. Unable to maneuver or sub divide formation. Unable to maneuver or sub divide formation.

31 Slide 31 Greek Phalanx

32 Slide 32 Marathon Darius had two routes to invade Greece; land and sea. Darius had two routes to invade Greece; land and sea. In 492 B.C. his land campaign failed due to bad weather (his fleet was destroyed). In 492 B.C. his land campaign failed due to bad weather (his fleet was destroyed). Second attempt launched two years later, resulted in the battle at Marathon. Second attempt launched two years later, resulted in the battle at Marathon.

33 Slide 33 Initial Plan to Invade Greece

34 Slide 34 Marathon, 490 B.C. Persian fleet conveying a force of infantry and cavalry across the Aegean Sea. Persian fleet conveying a force of infantry and cavalry across the Aegean Sea. Captured most of islands along the route. Captured most of islands along the route. Met heavy resistance at Eritrea. Met heavy resistance at Eritrea. Attack on Eritrea was a retaliation for assisting Athens in the Ionian rebellion. Attack on Eritrea was a retaliation for assisting Athens in the Ionian rebellion. Persians sailed from Eritrea to Marathon Bay, five miles from Athens. Persians sailed from Eritrea to Marathon Bay, five miles from Athens.

35 Slide 35 2 nd Plan for Invasion of Greece

36 Slide 36 Marathon

37 Slide 37 Battle at Marathon Amphibious landing aimed at drawing forces from Athens. Amphibious landing aimed at drawing forces from Athens. Persians landed on undefended beaches. Persians landed on undefended beaches. Upon learning of Persian landing, Athens sends a small force led by Miltiades. Upon learning of Persian landing, Athens sends a small force led by Miltiades. They occupied the Valley of Varana; out numbered three to one. They occupied the Valley of Varana; out numbered three to one. Sent for help from Spartans; who were unwilling to leave (religious, new moon). Sent for help from Spartans; who were unwilling to leave (religious, new moon).

38 Slide 38

39 Slide 39 Battle at Marathon Miltiades understanding the Persians’ warfare weakened the centre of his phalanx and strengthened his flanks. Miltiades understanding the Persians’ warfare weakened the centre of his phalanx and strengthened his flanks. He attacked, surprising the Persians. He attacked, surprising the Persians. Light infantry of the Persians crushed by Greek hoplites on the flanks. Light infantry of the Persians crushed by Greek hoplites on the flanks. Greek center fell; they retreated into the valley. Greek center fell; they retreated into the valley. Persians perused and their lines extended. Persians perused and their lines extended. Greek flanks enveloped causing the Persians to retreat. Greek flanks enveloped causing the Persians to retreat.

40 Slide 40

41 Slide 41 Marathon Greeks pushed the Persians back to the beachhead. Greeks pushed the Persians back to the beachhead. They captured seven Persian ships. They captured seven Persian ships. The surviving Persians fled on the remaining ships. The surviving Persians fled on the remaining ships. Persian casualties- 6400, Greek Persian casualties- 6400, Greek - 192

42 Slide 42 Summary Early weapons are classified into two categories; shock and missile. Early weapons are classified into two categories; shock and missile. Evolution of weapons from rocks to iron and bronze. Evolution of weapons from rocks to iron and bronze. Protective armor; from wood and hide to bronze and iron. Protective armor; from wood and hide to bronze and iron. The Assyrian Army; first to employ all elements of their military on the battle field. The Assyrian Army; first to employ all elements of their military on the battle field. The Persian and Greek Army structure; phalanx, hoplite, cavalry, light and heavy infantry. The Persian and Greek Army structure; phalanx, hoplite, cavalry, light and heavy infantry. The battle of Marathon; Darius’s plans, Miltiades knowledge of Persian warfare. The battle of Marathon; Darius’s plans, Miltiades knowledge of Persian warfare.

43 Slide 43 Questions?

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