Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 – The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 9 – The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran Section NotesVideoPhysical GeographyThe Arabian PeninsulaIraqIranImpact of OilMapsThe Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran:PoliticalPhysicalClimateSaudi Arabia’s Oil FieldsMesopotamia and SumerThe Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and IranWorld AlmanacSaudi Arabia’s Oil ProductionSaudi Arabia’s ExportsImagesQuick FactsGeographyOil WealthIraqi WomanYazd, IranMajor Oil ProducersChapter 9 Visual Summary
2Physical Geography The Big Idea The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran make up a mostly desert region with very valuable oil resources.Main IdeasMajor physical features of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran are desert plains and mountains.The region has a dry climate and little vegetation.Most of the world is dependent on oil, a resource that is exported from this region.
3Main Idea 1: Major physical features of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran are desert plains and mountains.The Arabian Peninsula has the largest sand desert in the world, along with huge expanses of desert covered with bare rock or gravel.Iran, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula form a sort of semicircle, with the Persian Gulf in the center.The Arabian Peninsula is bounded by the Gulf of Oman, the Arabian Sea, and the Red Sea.The Caspian Sea borders Iran to the north.
4Landforms of the Arabian Peninsula RiversThe Tigris and Euphrates rivers flow across a low, flat plain in Iraq and join together before they reach the Persian Gulf.They are known as exotic rivers, or rivers that begin in humid regions and then flow through dry areas.The Arabian Peninsula has no permanent rivers.PlainsCover the eastDesert plains are covered with sand in the south and volcanic rock in the north.Plateaus and MountainsNear the Red Sea the landscape becomes plateaus and mountains.Highest point on the peninsula is in the mountains of Yemen.Plateaus and mountains cover most of Iran—the Zagros Mountains in the west, and the Elburz Mountains and the Kopet-Dag to the north.
5Main Idea 2: The region has a dry climate and little vegetation. Mostly desert climateSummer afternoon temperatures climb to over 100°F.Winter nighttime temperatures dip to below freezing.The Rub’ al-Khali, the world’s largest sand desert, covers much of southern Saudi Arabia.Sand dunes can rise to 800 feet high and stretch 200 miles.Higher areas generally have semiarid steppe climates.VegetationTrees are common in mountain regions and in scattered desert oases. An oasis is a wet, fertile area in a desert that forms where underground water bubbles to the surface.Shrubs and grasses that grow on the region’s dry plains have roots that either grow deep or spread out far to capture as much water as possible.Some places in the region are too dry or too salty to support any vegetation.
6Main Idea 3: Most of the world is dependent on oil, a resource that is exported from this region. Water is one of the region’s two most valuable resources, but is very scarce.Some springs provide water.Water can come from wells dug into dry streambeds called wadis.Modern wells can reach groundwater, but it is often fossil water. Fossil water is water that is not being replaced by rainfall.
7OilOil is plentiful.Most of the oil fields are near the shores of the Persian Gulf.Oil cannot be replaced once it is taken from Earth.Oil exports bring great wealth to the countries that have oil fields.Most countries of the region are not rich in other resources.Iran is an exception with its mineral deposits.
8The Arabian Peninsula The Big Idea Most countries of the Arabian Peninsula share three main characteristics: Islamic religion and culture, monarchy as a form of government, and valuable oil resources.Main IdeasIslamic culture and an economy greatly based on oil influence life in Saudi Arabia.Most other Arabian Peninsula countries are monarchies influenced by Islamic culture and oil resources.
9Main Idea 1: Islamic culture and an economy greatly based on oil influence life in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is the largest of the countries of the Arabian Peninsula.Nearly all Saudis are Arabs and speak Arabic.Nearly all Saudis are Shia Muslims or Sunni Muslims. About 85 percent are Sunni.Shia Muslims believe that true interpretation of Islamic teaching can only come from certain religious and political leaders called imams.Sunni Muslims believe in the ability of the majority of the community to interpret Islamic teachings.Islam requires modesty. Saudis keep arms and legs covered.Saudi laws and customs limit women’s activities.
10Government and Economy MonarchySaud family rulers since 1932Most government officials are relatives of the king.No elected legislatureLocal officials electedOnly men allowed to voteEconomyEconomy based on oil (world’s leading exporter of oil)Influential member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPECOPEC is an international organization whose members work to influence the price of oil on world markets by controlling the supply.
11Economic Challenges Oil has brought wealth. Sizable middle class Free health care and educationBut Saudi Arabia still faces economic challenges.Must import much of its food because freshwater for farming is scarceDesalination plants remove salt from seawater, but this requires an extremely expensive procedure.High unemployment rateHigh population growth rateMany young Saudis study religion instead of technology.
12Main Idea 2: Most other Arabian Peninsula countries are monarchies influenced by Islamic culture and oil resources.Oil-based economyInvaded by Iraq in 1990, starting Persian Gulf WarMonarchy with a legislature elected in 1992KuwaitGroup of islands in the Persian GulfMonarchy with a legislatureOil, banking, and tourismBahrainSmall peninsula in the Persian GulfPowerful monarch with elected officialsOil and natural gasQatar
13Other Countries of the Arabian Peninsula Seven tiny kingdomsDepends on foreign workers; outnumber citizensOil and natural gasThe United ArabEmiratesMost of the southeastern part of the Arabian PeninsulaGovernment attempting to develop new industriesOilOmanSouthwestern part of the Arabian PeninsulaElected government with political corruptionOilPoorest country on the Arabian PeninsulaYemen
14IraqThe Big IdeaIraq, a country with a rich culture and natural resources, faces the challenge of rebuilding after years of conflict.Main IdeasIraq’s history includes rule by many conquerors and cultures, as well as recent wars.Most of Iraq’s people are Arabs, and Iraqi culture includes the religion of Islam.Iraq today must rebuild its government and economy, which have suffered from years of conflict.
15Main Idea 1: Iraq’s history includes rule by many conquerors and cultures, as well as recent wars. The world’s first civilization was in Mesopotamia, a region that is part of Iraq today.Persians conquered Mesopotamia in the 500s BC.By 331 BC it was part of Alexander the Great’s empire.In the AD 600s Arabs conquered Mesopotamia.In the 1500s Mesopotamia became part of the Ottoman Empire.During World War I Great Britain took over the region.Iraqi army officers overthrew the government in the 1950s.In 1968, after several more changes in government, the Baath Party took power.
16Saddam Takes Power1979: Baath leader named Saddam Hussein became Iraq’s president.Saddam controlled Iraq’s media, restricted personal freedoms, and killed political enemies.1980: Iraq invaded Iran. The Iran-Iraq War lasted until 1988.1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait.1991: Alliance of countries led by the United States forced the Iraqis out of Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War.Saddam would not accept all the United Nations’ (UN) peace terms.The UN placed an embargo, or limit on trade, on Iraq.
17War and Its EffectsSoon after the Persian Gulf War ended, Saddam crushed two rebellions from Shia Muslims and Kurds.The UN forced Iraq to end all military activity and allow inspectors into the country.Iraq later refused to cooperate completely.September 11, 2001: Terrorist attacks on the United States led to new tensions between the United States and Iraq.March 2003: U.S. forces attacked Iraqi targets. Soon after, the Iraqi army was defeated and Saddam’s government was crushed.Saddam went into hiding, and eight months later U.S. soldiers found him. After his arrest, Saddam was tried and executed for his crimes.
18West and Southwest Culture Areas Ethnic GroupsIraq has a population of about 26 million, most living in cities.More than 75 percent are Arabs and speak the country’s official language, Arabic.Some 15 to 20 percent are Kurds. They are mostly farmers and live in a large region of northern Iraq. Most speak Kurdish in addition to Arabic.ReligionNearly all Iraqis are Muslim.About 60 percent are Shia and live in the south.About 35 percent are Sunnis and live in the north.
19Main Idea 3: Iraq today must rebuild its government and economy, which have suffered from years of conflict.Iraq’s capital, Baghdad, was severely damaged in the recent war. U.S. military and private contractors helped restore electricity and water, and rebuild homes, businesses, and schools.RebuildingJanuary 2005: first democratic electionsMembers elected to the National AssemblyNew constitution writtenGovernmentTrying to recover oil productionProducing barley, cotton, and riceIraq faces huge challenges in creating a free and prosperous society.Economy
20Islam is a huge influence on government and daily life in Iran. The Big IdeaIslam is a huge influence on government and daily life in Iran.Main IdeasIran’s history includes great empires and an Islamic republic.In Iran today, Islamic religious leaders restrict the rights of most Iranians.
21Main Idea 1: Iran’s history includes great empires and an Islamic republic. Starting in the 500s BC the Persian Empire ruled the region around present-day Iran.For centuries Persia was a great center of art and learning.Known for paintings, carpets, metalwork, and architectureWalls and statues throughout the empire’s capital, Persepolis, glittered with gold, silver, and precious jewels.The Persian Empire was later conquered by several Muslim empires.The Persians converted to Islam, but retained their Persian culture.
22The Shah and Islamic Revolution 1921: An Iranian military officer took power and claimed the old Persian title of shah, or king.1941: The shah’s son took control and tried to modernize Iran.1978: Iranians began a revolution, a drastic change in a country’s government and way of life.1979: Iranians overthrew the shah and set up an Islamic republic, following strict Islamic law.Relations with the United States broke down. A mob of students attacked the U.S. Embassy in Iran’s capital, Tehran.With the approval of Iran’s government, the students took more than 50 Americans working at the embassy hostage and held them by force for over a year.
23Main Idea 2: In Iran today, Islamic religious leaders restrict the rights of most Iranians. More than half of all Iranians are Persian and speak Farsi.Most of Iran’s population of 68 million is very young and ethnically diverse. Ethnic groups include Persians, Azerbaijanis, Kurds, Arabs, and Turks.Most Iranians belong to the Shia branch of Islam.In addition to Islamic holy days, Iranians celebrate Nowruz—the Persian New Year.Iranian culture also includes close-knit families and respect for elders.
24Economy and Government Huge oil reservesProduction of beautiful woven carpetsStrong agricultural sectorGovernmentCurrent government is a theocracy—a government ruled by religious leaders.Religious leaders, or ayatollahs, control Iran’s governmentThe head of the ayatollahs has unlimited power.Iran has an elected president and parliament.
25Iran’s Current Government Iran’s government has supported many hard-line policies.Called for the destruction of IsraelSupported terrorist groups in other countriesIn 1997 the newly elected president supported improving Iran’s economy and rights for women.In 2005, Iranians elected Mahmoud Ahmadinejad president.He supports strict Islamic law.