Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 – The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran Section Notes Physical Geography The Arabian Peninsula Iraq Iran Video Impact of Oil Images Geography."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 – The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran Section Notes Physical Geography The Arabian Peninsula Iraq Iran Video Impact of Oil Images Geography Oil Wealth Iraqi Woman Yazd, Iran Major Oil Producers Quick Facts Chapter 9 Visual Summary Maps The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran: Political Physical Climate Saudi Arabia’s Oil Fields Mesopotamia and Sumer The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran World Almanac Saudi Arabia’s Oil Production Saudi Arabia’s Exports
Physical Geography The Big Idea The Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran make up a mostly desert region with very valuable oil resources. Main Ideas Major physical features of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran are desert plains and mountains. The region has a dry climate and little vegetation. Most of the world is dependent on oil, a resource that is exported from this region.
Main Idea 1: Major physical features of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and Iran are desert plains and mountains. The Arabian Peninsula has the largest sand desert in the world, along with huge expanses of desert covered with bare rock or gravel. Iran, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula form a sort of semicircle, with the Persian Gulf in the center. The Arabian Peninsula is bounded by the Gulf of Oman, the Arabian Sea, and the Red Sea. The Caspian Sea borders Iran to the north.
Landforms of the Arabian Peninsula Rivers The Tigris and Euphrates rivers flow across a low, flat plain in Iraq and join together before they reach the Persian Gulf. They are known as exotic rivers, or rivers that begin in humid regions and then flow through dry areas. The Arabian Peninsula has no permanent rivers. Plains Cover the east Desert plains are covered with sand in the south and volcanic rock in the north. Plateaus and Mountains Near the Red Sea the landscape becomes plateaus and mountains. Highest point on the peninsula is in the mountains of Yemen. Plateaus and mountains cover most of Iran—the Zagros Mountains in the west, and the Elburz Mountains and the Kopet-Dag to the north.
Main Idea 2: The region has a dry climate and little vegetation. Climate Mostly desert climate Summer afternoon temperatures climb to over 100°F. Winter nighttime temperatures dip to below freezing. The Rub’ al-Khali, the world’s largest sand desert, covers much of southern Saudi Arabia. Sand dunes can rise to 800 feet high and stretch 200 miles. Higher areas generally have semiarid steppe climates. Vegetation Trees are common in mountain regions and in scattered desert oases. An oasis is a wet, fertile area in a desert that forms where underground water bubbles to the surface. Shrubs and grasses that grow on the region’s dry plains have roots that either grow deep or spread out far to capture as much water as possible. Some places in the region are too dry or too salty to support any vegetation.
Main Idea 3: Most of the world is dependent on oil, a resource that is exported from this region. Some springs provide water. Water is one of the region’s two most valuable resources, but is very scarce. Water can come from wells dug into dry streambeds called wadis. Modern wells can reach groundwater, but it is often fossil water. Fossil water is water that is not being replaced by rainfall.
Oil Oil is plentiful. Most of the oil fields are near the shores of the Persian Gulf. Oil cannot be replaced once it is taken from Earth. Oil exports bring great wealth to the countries that have oil fields. –Most countries of the region are not rich in other resources. –Iran is an exception with its mineral deposits.
The Arabian Peninsula The Big Idea Most countries of the Arabian Peninsula share three main characteristics: Islamic religion and culture, monarchy as a form of government, and valuable oil resources. Main Ideas Islamic culture and an economy greatly based on oil influence life in Saudi Arabia. Most other Arabian Peninsula countries are monarchies influenced by Islamic culture and oil resources.
Main Idea 1: Islamic culture and an economy greatly based on oil influence life in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is the largest of the countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Nearly all Saudis are Arabs and speak Arabic. Nearly all Saudis are Shia Muslims or Sunni Muslims. About 85 percent are Sunni. Shia Muslims believe that true interpretation of Islamic teaching can only come from certain religious and political leaders called imams. Sunni Muslims believe in the ability of the majority of the community to interpret Islamic teachings. Islam requires modesty. Saudis keep arms and legs covered. Saudi laws and customs limit women’s activities.
Government and Economy Monarchy Saud family rulers since 1932 Most government officials are relatives of the king. No elected legislature Local officials elected Only men allowed to vote Economy based on oil (world’s leading exporter of oil) Influential member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC OPEC is an international organization whose members work to influence the price of oil on world markets by controlling the supply. Government Economy
Economic Challenges Must import much of its food because freshwater for farming is scarce Desalination plants remove salt from seawater, but this requires an extremely expensive procedure. Oil has brought wealth. Sizable middle class Free health care and education But Saudi Arabia still faces economic challenges. High unemployment rate High population growth rate Many young Saudis study religion instead of technology.
Main Idea 2: Most other Arabian Peninsula countries are monarchies influenced by Islamic culture and oil resources. Oil-based economy Invaded by Iraq in 1990, starting Persian Gulf War Monarchy with a legislature elected in 1992 Group of islands in the Persian Gulf Monarchy with a legislature Oil, banking, and tourism Small peninsula in the Persian Gulf Powerful monarch with elected officials Oil and natural gas Kuwait Bahrain Qatar
Seven tiny kingdoms Depends on foreign workers; outnumber citizens Oil and natural gas Most of the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula Government attempting to develop new industries Oil Southwestern part of the Arabian Peninsula Elected government with political corruption Oil Poorest country on the Arabian Peninsula The United Arab Emirates Oman Yemen Other Countries of the Arabian Peninsula
Iraq The Big Idea Iraq, a country with a rich culture and natural resources, faces the challenge of rebuilding after years of conflict. Main Ideas Iraq’s history includes rule by many conquerors and cultures, as well as recent wars. Most of Iraq’s people are Arabs, and Iraqi culture includes the religion of Islam. Iraq today must rebuild its government and economy, which have suffered from years of conflict.
Main Idea 1: Iraq’s history includes rule by many conquerors and cultures, as well as recent wars. The world’s first civilization was in Mesopotamia, a region that is part of Iraq today. Persians conquered Mesopotamia in the 500s BC. By 331 BC it was part of Alexander the Great’s empire. In the AD 600s Arabs conquered Mesopotamia. In the 1500s Mesopotamia became part of the Ottoman Empire. During World War I Great Britain took over the region. Iraqi army officers overthrew the government in the 1950s. In 1968, after several more changes in government, the Baath Party took power.
Saddam Takes Power 1979: Baath leader named Saddam Hussein became Iraq’s president. Saddam controlled Iraq’s media, restricted personal freedoms, and killed political enemies. 1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait. Saddam would not accept all the United Nations’ (UN) peace terms. 1980: Iraq invaded Iran. The Iran-Iraq War lasted until 1988. 1991: Alliance of countries led by the United States forced the Iraqis out of Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War. The UN placed an embargo, or limit on trade, on Iraq.
War and Its Effects Soon after the Persian Gulf War ended, Saddam crushed two rebellions from Shia Muslims and Kurds. The UN forced Iraq to end all military activity and allow inspectors into the country. Iraq later refused to cooperate completely. September 11, 2001: Terrorist attacks on the United States led to new tensions between the United States and Iraq. March 2003: U.S. forces attacked Iraqi targets. Soon after, the Iraqi army was defeated and Saddam’s government was crushed. Saddam went into hiding, and eight months later U.S. soldiers found him. After his arrest, Saddam was tried and executed for his crimes.
West and Southwest Culture Areas Ethnic Groups Iraq has a population of about 26 million, most living in cities. More than 75 percent are Arabs and speak the country’s official language, Arabic. Some 15 to 20 percent are Kurds. They are mostly farmers and live in a large region of northern Iraq. Most speak Kurdish in addition to Arabic. Religion Nearly all Iraqis are Muslim. About 60 percent are Shia and live in the south. About 35 percent are Sunnis and live in the north.
Main Idea 3: Iraq today must rebuild its government and economy, which have suffered from years of conflict. January 2005: first democratic elections Members elected to the National Assembly New constitution written Iraq’s capital, Baghdad, was severely damaged in the recent war. U.S. military and private contractors helped restore electricity and water, and rebuild homes, businesses, and schools. Trying to recover oil production Producing barley, cotton, and rice Iraq faces huge challenges in creating a free and prosperous society. Rebuilding Government Economy
Iran The Big Idea Islam is a huge influence on government and daily life in Iran. Main Ideas Iran’s history includes great empires and an Islamic republic. In Iran today, Islamic religious leaders restrict the rights of most Iranians.
Main Idea 1: Iran’s history includes great empires and an Islamic republic. Starting in the 500s BC the Persian Empire ruled the region around present-day Iran. For centuries Persia was a great center of art and learning. –Known for paintings, carpets, metalwork, and architecture –Walls and statues throughout the empire’s capital, Persepolis, glittered with gold, silver, and precious jewels. The Persian Empire was later conquered by several Muslim empires. The Persians converted to Islam, but retained their Persian culture.
The Shah and Islamic Revolution 1921: An Iranian military officer took power and claimed the old Persian title of shah, or king. 1941: The shah’s son took control and tried to modernize Iran. 1979: Iranians overthrew the shah and set up an Islamic republic, following strict Islamic law. With the approval of Iran’s government, the students took more than 50 Americans working at the embassy hostage and held them by force for over a year. 1978: Iranians began a revolution, a drastic change in a country’s government and way of life. Relations with the United States broke down. A mob of students attacked the U.S. Embassy in Iran’s capital, Tehran.
Main Idea 2: In Iran today, Islamic religious leaders restrict the rights of most Iranians. More than half of all Iranians are Persian and speak Farsi. Most of Iran’s population of 68 million is very young and ethnically diverse. Ethnic groups include Persians, Azerbaijanis, Kurds, Arabs, and Turks. Most Iranians belong to the Shia branch of Islam. In addition to Islamic holy days, Iranians celebrate Nowruz— the Persian New Year. Iranian culture also includes close-knit families and respect for elders.
Economy and Government Huge oil reserves Production of beautiful woven carpets Strong agricultural sector Current government is a theocracy—a government ruled by religious leaders. Religious leaders, or ayatollahs, control Iran’s government The head of the ayatollahs has unlimited power. Iran has an elected president and parliament. Economy Government
Iran’s Current Government In 1997 the newly elected president supported improving Iran’s economy and rights for women. Iran’s government has supported many hard-line policies. –Called for the destruction of Israel –Supported terrorist groups in other countries In 2005, Iranians elected Mahmoud Ahmadinejad president. –He supports strict Islamic law.