Neo-Babylon Empire Duration : 626 B.C. – 539 B.C. Origin : Babylonia in Mesopotamia Form of civilization: A settlement under the rule of Assyrian Empire
The relationship with neighbors: Babylon united and live in peace with Median Empire in its northern side. The people wanted to be independent from Assyria, and thus they warred upon Assyrian Empire.
Major Wars involved: The Babylonians conquered –Assyrian Empire –The Kingdom of Judah To expand their empire
Persian Empire Origin: Persian Plateau Myth about the origin: The mythical founder of the empire – Achaemenes (Actually the empire was found by Cyrus the Great) From of civilization: It was a settlement under control of Median Empire.
The relationship with neighbors: Persians formed an alliance with Babylonians. Then, Babylon can as a buffer state to protect the northern side of Persian Empire. Major Wars involved: They defeated their enemies such as Median Empire to gain independence. Neo-Babylon Persian Median Empire
The Ancient Greece Origin: Near the Mediterranean Sea Myth about the origin: The origin of the world and the Greece are described in the Myths of the Greeks Form of the civilization: It was formed by many city states (Polis). It included many independent cities, which united to fight against Persian Empire
The relationship with neighbors: Although there were many Polis in Greece, Greece was dominated by two main powers: democratic Athens and the military oligarchy of Sparta. Conflicts between Greece and other countries occurred while Greeks trade with other cities frequently. Persian was their major opponent.
Major Wars involved: Greco-Persian War was a critical event in the development of Greece. Greeks defeated Persian in this war which lasted for 50 year and reached its golden ages.
The Ancient Rome Origin: Near Tiber River valley near Italian Peninsula Myth about the origin: Romans think they were the descendent of Mars (as known as the “ God of War ”. Romulus and Remus are the children of Mars who were fed by a she-wolf. When they grew up, they decided to build a city which was named after Romulus (Rome). (movie)(movie)
Form of civilization: Similar with Ancient Greece, Roman Empire was originally formed by a group of city states on the “seven hills” over Italian peninsula.
The relationship with neighbors: The Romans conquered many countries over Italian peninsula and over Europe. Many provinces were set up by the Romans after these places had been conquered. Carthage was the major rival of the Romans since Carthage was the largest empire at that time.
Major Wars involved: Punic War and Gallic War was two critical wars in the development of Roman Empire as well as the foundation of the Roman Empire had been strengthened by wining these wars.
Part 2 – The reasons for the success of these civilizations
Leadership Neo-Babylon: Nebuchadnezzar II played a key role in delivering Babylon from its independence on Assyria and also led his Army to conquer many countries. (For example Babylon allied with Medes because he married with the princess of Median Empire)
Persian Empire: Cyrus the Great contributed a lot in the success of Persian Empire. He led his army to expand the empire and his empire was the largest empire in the ancient time.
Ancient Greece: Pericles led Athens during its Golden Age. He played an important role in rebuilding the Greece after the battle of Persian War.
Ancient Rome: There were many outstanding leaders in the Roman History. Julius Caesar was probably the best Roman General in the History of Ancient Rome. When he was in the office, he carried out reforms, relieved debt, enlarged the senate and revised the calendar. Also, Julius Caesar won “the Gallic Wars”. He earned a fortune and expanded the territories of Roman.
The common geographical features of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome: Near the Mediterranean Sea, Most of the Greece cities were located on a peninsula with mountains between cities. Climate: Mediterranean climate (characterized by warm and dry summers, mild and wet winters)
How did the geographical factors affect the development of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome? Climate and economic: The Mediterranean climate favors the growth of agricultural products, especially for grape (for produce wine) and Olive (for produce Olive Oil). Both of these were important economic products.
Landscape and military: For Greece, the land transportation between cities was inconvenient. They made use of the sea around their cities as the route for marine transportation. The advancement in the marine transportation paved the way for the development of a Strong Navy and such strong naval power of Greece was critical in deciding the Greeks ’ victory in the Persian War.
For the Romans, since the Italian peninsula is hilly and faces the River Tiber, it is convenient to build the defense works. The mountains also act as the natural barrier to protect Romans from the barbarians in the north. Thus, the Roman could develop their country under a stable environment.
Landscape and Economic development: Greece: Living around the sea and islands led to the advancement in the shipbuilding and the strong navy. Therefore, Greeks can trade with the overseas colonies.
Rome: the Latin plateau was fertile and flat and with adequate natural resources such as timber, so the Romans can maintain a stable supply of food and fuel for their early development. Along with the expansion of the empire, many provinces were established and resources from these provinces could be shipped back to Rome easily through water transportation.
Economy Neo-Babylon Empire: They adopted a slavery system to maintain enough manpower for construction work and production. Therefore, slaves provided enough resources for the country when the soldiers fight outside.
Persian Empire: Under the rule of the Darius the Great, currency had been uniformed. This enhanced the development of the Empires’ economy.
Ancient Greece: Greece is hilly, which hindered trading. Then, Greeks turned to marine trade. The polis of Greece could get what they need from overseas.
Many Colonies were built by the polis as their hinterland for supporting the source of different kinds of resources. The material support from the colonies contributed a lot to the development of Ancient Greece.
Ancient Rome : The City of Rome was built on the site which is lack of natural resources. Therefore, Romans get the resources from the following ways: The western side of Rome is near the coastal area, the Romans trade with other countries / cities near the Mediterranean Sea.
Romans could get what they need from provinces. Provinces were countries or regions that Rome had conquered. Rome had many provinces. Each was valuable to Rome. Rome's provinces provided manpower, taxes, food and other resources. The provinces were connected to Rome by a series of Roman roads and all roads led to Rome.
Military Power Neo-Babylon : Nebuchadnezzar II was an experienced solider and general, he was capable to be the leader of Army. Under his leadership, Babylon allied with Medes Empire to form a strong army to fight against Assyrians. Finally Babylonians won the War by using this strategy of allying with others.
Persian Empire: Darius the Great built many roads over the empire therefore enhanced the efficiency of communication within the army.
Ancient Greece: Athens and Sparta were the polis, who led the Greece. The warriors in those cities were good fighters. Athens had a strong navy, with ships that were tiny and easy to control. The Spartan army was strong and well trained. These strong armies were the major reason for defeating the Persian.
Ancient Rome: The Roman Army was strong because: Clear Mission statement: The Army is for the prevention of foreign invasions. It became more determined in defending their newly acquired territories. Good Strategies: The Roman Army was dedicated in military strategies. For instance, The Roman Army was good at learning others’ strengths and converting to their own techniques. For example, The Romans learnt how to make battleship from the Carthaginians in the First Punic War and built more powerful battleship based on the craftsmanship of the Carthaginians.
Rigorous Discipline: Discipline had been emphasized in the Roman Army, the soldiers were ordered to be diligent with their position and applied heavy punishments and collateral punishment to those who cannot comply with or disobey the orders. The army was thus trained for defending and fighting for the empire. Adaption of Conscription system (that means every male must enroll to the Army) to secure human resources for the army.
Inferior Quality of Enemies In a certain extent, these empires defeat their enemies because their enemies were weakened due to different reasons, for examples: Neo-Babylon Empire: Assyrian Empire’s power was weakened due to the frequently occurred civil rebellion within the empire. Persian Empire: They conquered Neo-Babylon successfully because the people against the king of Babylon on his religious policy opened their gates for Cyrus and greeted him as their liberator.