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By, Nick Pedalino, Jack Isla, Jenna Leo, Jack Haggerty

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1 By, Nick Pedalino, Jack Isla, Jenna Leo, Jack Haggerty
Persian Gulf War By, Nick Pedalino, Jack Isla, Jenna Leo, Jack Haggerty

2 Journal: George H. W. Bush Address to the Nation on Invasion of Iraq
If you were around to hear the President’s initial address to the nation, after taking into account the points reasoned in the speech, would you be for or against the invasion of Iraq? Why or why not?

3 Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait
August 2, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait with more then 100,000 Iraqi soldiers and 700 tanks. Saddam Hussein, of the provisional government in Iraq threatened to turn Kuwait into a graveyard if any other country dared to challenge the “take over by force”. All communication had been cut with Kuwait and many people, including many foreign nationals were trapped in the city. Invasion reports suggested that up to 200 people had been killed around the city during the time of the invasion.

The invasion soon sparked strong condemnation from world leaders. The United Nations Security Council in a state of emergency, soon called for the “immediate and unconditional” withdraw of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher branded the Invasion as “absolutely unacceptable”. American President George Bush considered the invasion a “naked act of aggression”. Margaret Thatcher George Bush

5 Operation “Desert Shield”
On August 6, 1990, King Fahd of Saudi Arabia met with Richard Cheney, requesting U.S. military assistance. A day later on April 7, 1990 President Bush, authorized operation “Desert Shield”. “Desert Shield”, was the operational name of the military defense, by a 30-nation force led by the United States, of Saudi Arabia and its oil installations following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Bush stressed on how half of the oil the U.S. consumed came from Saudi Arabia and should it be attacked it would pose a threat to U.S economic independence. This operation would soon lead to the deployment of 500,000 troops to the country of Saudi Arabia. King Fahd meeting with Richard Cheney

6 Negotiations for Kuwait
When negotiations began U.S. officials insisted on a total Iraqi pullout from Kuwait. The U.S. feared any concessions would strengthen Iraqi influence in the region for years to come. On August 12, 1990, Saddam Hussein called for compromise via Baghdad radio. Agreed that Iraqi forces would leave Kuwait if: Israel withdrew from its territories in Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon. Replacement of U.S. troops who had mobilized in Saudi Arabia with an “Arab Force”. President Bush quickly dismissed the agreement, strongly apposing it. Again in August 1990 another proposal was delivered to National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft by an unidentified Iraqi official. This new proposal said that Iraqi forces would leave Kuwait if: The UN lifted sanctions. Allowed "'guaranteed access' to the Persian Gulf through the Kuwaiti islands of Bubiyan and Warbah" Allowed Iraq to "gain full control of the Rumailah oil field that extended slightly into Kuwaiti territory Also "include(d) offers to negotiate an oil agreement with the United States 'satisfactory to both nations' national security interests. Ultimately, the US stuck to its hard line position that there would be no negotiations until Iraq withdrew from Kuwait and that they should not grant Iraq concessions. Brent Scowcroft, National Security Advisor

7 Resolution 678 The Council, recognizing its responsibility to uphold international peace and security, offered Iraq one final chance. Iraq was to implement Resolution 660 (1990) which demanded that Iraq withdraw its forces unconditionally from Kuwait. If Iraq did not implement the resolution by January 15, 1991, Member States were authorized to use all necessary means to uphold and implement Resolution 660 (1990). This was the legal authorization for the Gulf War, as Iraq did not withdraw by the deadline.

8 Un justifies intervention
The UN and U.S. gave several public justifications for involvement which included: Iraqi violation of Kuwaiti territory. The U.S. was supporting its ally Saudi Arabia who was a key oil supplier. Claimed satellite forces showed a build up of Iraqi forces along the border of Saudi Arabia (shown to be false). Iraq’s history of human rights abuses during Saddam’s presidency. Iraq also possessed biological weapons.

9 Influencing U.S. Opinion
Throughout the beginning of the war there where many ways the Gov. and other organizations came up with to influence the American opinion. Books where distributed highlighting Iraqi atrocities to U.S. soldiers. Before a group of members of the U.S. Congress a woman identified herself as a nurse working in the Kuwait City hospital. She described Iraqi soldiers pulling babies out of incubators and letting them die on the floor. It was found out later that this was a fabrication however it was to late, The story helped tip both the public and Congress towards a war with Iraq.

10 Video Bush Announces War

11 Operation “Desert Storm”
The gulf war finally began on January 17, 1991, with an extensive aerial bombing campaign. The planes dropped a total of 88,500 tons of bombs, destroying military and civilian infrastructure. The commander of allied forces was General Schwarzkopf. A day after the deadline set in Resolution 678, the coalition launched a massive air campaign. Began the general offensive codenamed Operation Desert Storm. The first priority for Coalition forces was the destruction of the Iraqi air force and anti-aircraft facilities. The largest phase of the air campaign targeted military scud missile launchers, weapons research facilities, and naval forces throughout Iraq and Kuwait.

12 Results of Air Campaign
Despite desperate efforts Iraqi anti-aircraft defenses were highly ineffective against coalition aircraft. Out of the 100,000 sorties (group of 1 or more planes) the coalition only lost a total of 75 plains. 44 of which were a result of Iraqi action and 2 of which were a result of plains trying to avoid Iraqi fire. 1 however was recorded as an air-air victory.

13 Iraqi Retaliation Scud Missile Transport Patriot Missle
The Iraqi government made no secret that it would attack Israel if invaded. Iraq responded to the coalition attacks by launching eight Al Hussein missiles at Israel the next day. These missile attacks on Israel were to continue throughout the war. A total of 42 Scud missiles were fired by Iraq into Israel during the seven weeks of the war. In response to the threat of Scuds on Israel, the United States rapidly sent a Patriot missile air defense artillery battalion to Israel. Coalition air forces were also extensively exercised in "Scud hunts" in the Iraqi desert. Scud Missile Transport Patriot Missle

14 Ac-130, type of plane shot down at Khafji
Battle of Khafji On January 29, 1991, Iraqi forces attacked and occupied the lightly defended Saudi city of Khafji. The battle of Khafji only lasted two days but resulted in heavy casualties. However Iraqi forces sustained substantially more dead and captured than the allied forces. 14 U.S. airmen were killed when an American AC-130 gunship was shot down by an Iraqi surface-to-air missile (SAM). Khafji was a strategically important city immediately after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. If Iraq would have secured Khafji they would have had a majority of Middle Eastern oil supplies. Would have found themselves better able to threaten the subsequent U.S. deployment along superior defensive lines. Ac-130, type of plane shot down at Khafji

15 Liberation of Kuwait: The War Ends
Early on February 24, 1991 U.S. troops launched an armored attack just to the west of Kuwait. The Iraqis suffered massive losses and lost dozens of tanks and vehicles, while American casualties were comparatively low. Coalition forces pressed into Kuwait swiftly, capturing their objective in three hours. The coalition advance had been much swifter then American generals had expected. On February 26, 1991, Iraqi forces began to retreat from Kuwait, setting oil fields on fire as they left. One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, on February 28th, President Bush declared a ceasefire. He soon declared that Kuwait had finally been liberated. Finally on June 8,1991 a Victory parade was held in Washington. Iraqis lit oil fields on fire like this one during their retreat. Victory Parade Washington D.C.

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