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Chapter 4 The Hellenistic World. The Conquests of Alexander the Great 1. Alexander's army of 37,000 and cavalry of 5,000 had little trouble with the Persians.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 The Hellenistic World. The Conquests of Alexander the Great 1. Alexander's army of 37,000 and cavalry of 5,000 had little trouble with the Persians."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 The Hellenistic World

2 The Conquests of Alexander the Great 1. Alexander's army of 37,000 and cavalry of 5,000 had little trouble with the Persians at the battles of Granicus River in 334 B.C. and Issus in 333 B.C. Before pursuing Darius III ( B.C.), Alexander had to gain the Syrian coast and Egypt in order to cut off the Persian navy from its ports and secure his rear from disloyal elements in Greece. The most strategic point was the port of Tyre. Although it was well fortified, the city fell after a siege of seven months. Tyre was recolonized and became the center of Alexander's control of the Syrian coast. 2. Alexander's dream of Hellenization found realization in the creation of Alexandria in Egypt as the center of Greek commerce and culture. The city was built on a narrow spit of land between a lake and the sea. The lake harbor connected with the Nile while the Mediterranean port was protected from the sea by an island. The city was thus a link between the valley of the Nile and the Mediterranean. Moreover, a canal previously built by the Egyptians connecting the Nile and the Red Sea provided access to the trade of Arabia and the Far East. At such a crossroad, the population of Alexandria blossomed and by the first century B.C. the city had half a million inhabitants. 4. According to legend, at Siwah the oracle of Zeus-Amon addressed Alexander as "son of Amon", thereby suggesting divine status. 5. Darius had chosen as the place to meet Alexander a great wide plain on the left bank of the Tigris River. Coming from Tyre, Alexander's army met the Persian force at Gaugamela in 331 B.C., defeating it as Darius fled the field. Alexander proclaimed himself the king of Asia. 6. At Persepolis, the third great capital of the Persian Empire (Babylon and Susa the other two), Alexander passed the winter of B.C. According to Plutarch, the booty taken here loaded 10,000 mules and 5,000 camels. The city was burned in revenge for the aggression of Xerxes against Greece in the sixth century B.C. 7. Entering into India in 326 B.C., Alexander met a formidable army at the Hydaspes River. Emerging victorious, he founded the new city of Bucephala named in honor of his beloved horse which had died. 8. The circuit of the Persian Empire was completed in 326 B.C. when Alexander's troops rebelled at going on any further. They had been away eight and a half long years and had traveled 11,000 miles. Reluctantly, Alexander acceded and the force struck out from the Indus to the mouth of the Persian Gulf across the bleak coast of the Gedrosian Desert. The journey cost nearly half his force of 30,000 men. Alexander then proceeded to Persepolis and then to Babylon where he died of a fever in 323 B.C. at the age of thirty-two. 9. It is estimated that Alexander in the course of his conquests summoned 60,000 to 65,000 additional mercenaries from Greece. At least 36,000 became residents of the garrisons and new cities, thereby serving as agents for the diffusion of Greek culture. Questions: 1. How did Greek ideas penetrate the East? 2. How did cities act as a catalyst for the Hellenistic Age? The Conquests of Alexander the Great 1. Alexander's army of 37,000 and cavalry of 5,000 had little trouble with the Persians at the battles of Granicus River in 334 B.C. and Issus in 333 B.C. Before pursuing Darius III ( B.C.), Alexander had to gain the Syrian coast and Egypt in order to cut off the Persian navy from its ports and secure his rear from disloyal elements in Greece. The most strategic point was the port of Tyre. Although it was well fortified, the city fell after a siege of seven months. Tyre was recolonized and became the center of Alexander's control of the Syrian coast. 2. Alexander's dream of Hellenization found realization in the creation of Alexandria in Egypt as the center of Greek commerce and culture. The city was built on a narrow spit of land between a lake and the sea. The lake harbor connected with the Nile while the Mediterranean port was protected from the sea by an island. The city was thus a link between the valley of the Nile and the Mediterranean. Moreover, a canal previously built by the Egyptians connecting the Nile and the Red Sea provided access to the trade of Arabia and the Far East. At such a crossroad, the population of Alexandria blossomed and by the first century B.C. the city had half a million inhabitants. 4. According to legend, at Siwah the oracle of Zeus-Amon addressed Alexander as "son of Amon", thereby suggesting divine status. 5. Darius had chosen as the place to meet Alexander a great wide plain on the left bank of the Tigris River. Coming from Tyre, Alexander's army met the Persian force at Gaugamela in 331 B.C., defeating it as Darius fled the field. Alexander proclaimed himself the king of Asia. 6. At Persepolis, the third great capital of the Persian Empire (Babylon and Susa the other two), Alexander passed the winter of B.C. According to Plutarch, the booty taken here loaded 10,000 mules and 5,000 camels. The city was burned in revenge for the aggression of Xerxes against Greece in the sixth century B.C. 7. Entering into India in 326 B.C., Alexander met a formidable army at the Hydaspes River. Emerging victorious, he founded the new city of Bucephala named in honor of his beloved horse which had died. 8. The circuit of the Persian Empire was completed in 326 B.C. when Alexander's troops rebelled at going on any further. They had been away eight and a half long years and had traveled 11,000 miles. Reluctantly, Alexander acceded and the force struck out from the Indus to the mouth of the Persian Gulf across the bleak coast of the Gedrosian Desert. The journey cost nearly half his force of 30,000 men. Alexander then proceeded to Persepolis and then to Babylon where he died of a fever in 323 B.C. at the age of thirty-two. 9. It is estimated that Alexander in the course of his conquests summoned 60,000 to 65,000 additional mercenaries from Greece. At least 36,000 became residents of the garrisons and new cities, thereby serving as agents for the diffusion of Greek culture. Questions: 1. How did Greek ideas penetrate the East? 2. How did cities act as a catalyst for the Hellenistic Age?

3 The Rise of Macedonia and the End of Hellenic Civilization King Philip II ( B.C.)  Battle of Chaeronea, 338 B.C.  Hegemon (leader) of Corinthian League Alexander the Great ( B.C.)  Attacks the Persian Empire  Battle of Granicus River, 334 B.C.  Battle of Issus, 333 B.C.  Battle of Gaugamela, 331 B.C.  Persepolis, 330 B.C.  Alexander in India, 327 B.C.  Gedrosian Desert  Death of Alexander, 323 B.C.

4 The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms 1. Unlike the other Hellenistic kings, the Ptolemies in Egypt were not city builders and made little effort to spread Greek culture. In the second century B.C. the Greeks and Egyptians began to intermarry with each adopting the language and customs of the other thereby creating a Greco- Egyptian culture. 2. In order to attract Greeks, the far ranging Selucid Empire established many cities and military colonies in Mesopotamia. Although the Selucids had no apparent plan for Hellenizing the population, the arrival of so many Greeks must have had an impact. Especially important in the Hellenizing process were the military colonies located near native villages. 3. The great wealth Alexander found at the Persian capitals was used to finance the creation of new cities, building roads, and modernizing harbors. 4. The Ptolemies, who learned to utilize the monsoon winds, established contact with India by sea. This route further stimulated the exchange of ideas and goods. The commerce came by sea into the Persian Gulf, up the Tigris to Seleucia. From Seleucia, the trade would move by caravan to Antioch and Ephesus on the west coast of Asia Minor. By land, the trip from the Indus to Seleucia took forty days and from Seleucia to the Mediterranean another fifteen. The longer alternate southern route wound its way by sea along the coast from India, around Arabia, and up the Red Sea. Goods would be transferred by caravan to the Nile and floated down to Alexandria and the Mediterranean. 5. The Hellenistic Age marked a shift in the center of eastern Mediterranean trade from Athens to Corinth and the new cities of Egypt and Asia. The Black Sea's commercial importance was reduced due to the Gallic and Scythian invasions. 6. The despotism of Hellenistic kingdoms was countered by a city-state federalism established by the Aetolian League (stretching across central Greece and parts of the Peloponnesus) and the Aechean League (including much of the Peloponnesus). These confederations were national unions in the modern sense. Questions: 1. After the breakup of Alexander's empire, how did the new kingdoms approach their political organization? How was it different from the polis? 2. How did trade contribute to the development of the Hellenistic Age? The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms 1. Unlike the other Hellenistic kings, the Ptolemies in Egypt were not city builders and made little effort to spread Greek culture. In the second century B.C. the Greeks and Egyptians began to intermarry with each adopting the language and customs of the other thereby creating a Greco- Egyptian culture. 2. In order to attract Greeks, the far ranging Selucid Empire established many cities and military colonies in Mesopotamia. Although the Selucids had no apparent plan for Hellenizing the population, the arrival of so many Greeks must have had an impact. Especially important in the Hellenizing process were the military colonies located near native villages. 3. The great wealth Alexander found at the Persian capitals was used to finance the creation of new cities, building roads, and modernizing harbors. 4. The Ptolemies, who learned to utilize the monsoon winds, established contact with India by sea. This route further stimulated the exchange of ideas and goods. The commerce came by sea into the Persian Gulf, up the Tigris to Seleucia. From Seleucia, the trade would move by caravan to Antioch and Ephesus on the west coast of Asia Minor. By land, the trip from the Indus to Seleucia took forty days and from Seleucia to the Mediterranean another fifteen. The longer alternate southern route wound its way by sea along the coast from India, around Arabia, and up the Red Sea. Goods would be transferred by caravan to the Nile and floated down to Alexandria and the Mediterranean. 5. The Hellenistic Age marked a shift in the center of eastern Mediterranean trade from Athens to Corinth and the new cities of Egypt and Asia. The Black Sea's commercial importance was reduced due to the Gallic and Scythian invasions. 6. The despotism of Hellenistic kingdoms was countered by a city-state federalism established by the Aetolian League (stretching across central Greece and parts of the Peloponnesus) and the Aechean League (including much of the Peloponnesus). These confederations were national unions in the modern sense. Questions: 1. After the breakup of Alexander's empire, how did the new kingdoms approach their political organization? How was it different from the polis? 2. How did trade contribute to the development of the Hellenistic Age?

5  Ideals of Alexander  Universal humanity or autocratic monarchy  Alexander’s legacy  Hellenistic Age (“to imitate Greeks”)  Monarchy Hellenistic Kingdoms  Macedonia – Antigonid dynasty  Syria and the east – Seleucids  Pergamum – Attalids  Egypt – Ptolemies  Military strength, divine rule  Art, architecture, language, literature  Culture  Cities

6 Hellenistic Monarchies  Ruling class – Greeks and Macedonians  Military force  Phalanx  Elephants  Siege machinery Hellenistic cities  Culture is Greek  Koiné  Polis  Rich control urban affairs  Cities spread Hellenistic culture  Aetolian League, Achaean League

7 Economic Trends  Agriculture  Cheap labor  Industry spreads east  Commerce and trade Hellenistic Society  Women  Hellenistic queens  Upper-class women  Spartan women  Education  Political activity  Legal status

8 Slavery  Children of slaves  Children sold by parents or abandoned  Kidnapped by pirates  Prisoners of war Transformation of education  Greek gymnasium evolves into secondary school  Usually upper-class male children Culture in the Hellenistic World Literature and art  Theocritus (c B.C.)  Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica  Meander (c B.C.) – New Comedy  Polybius (c. 203-c. 120 B.C.) – history  Sculpture

9 Golden Age of Science and Medicine  Aristarchus of Samos (c B.C.)  Heliocentric view of the universe  Eratosthenes (c B.C.)  Earth round, circumference of 24,675 miles  Euclid (c. 300 B.C.)  Elements  Archimedes of Syracuse ( B.C.)  Geometry of spheres and cylinders  Value of pi  Hydrostatics  Herophilus  Erasistratus

10 Philosophy  Epicurus ( B.C.)  Epicureanism, doctrine of “pleasure”  Zeno ( B.C.)  Stoicism Religion  “Mystery cults”  Isis  Astrology Jews in the Hellenistic World Judea  Antiochus IV ( B.C.)  Judas Maccabaeus, 164 B.C.  Hanukkah, Festival of Light


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