Presentation on theme: "Issues in Persian Cataloging Romanization: Grammatical Signs: Hamzah and Persian Izafah Persian Personal Names Importance of Affixes in Persian Cataloging."— Presentation transcript:
Issues in Persian Cataloging Romanization: Grammatical Signs: Hamzah and Persian Izafah Persian Personal Names Importance of Affixes in Persian Cataloging
Signs Representing Certain Grammatical Structures The sign “ ء ” a small “ی” (y) is one of the orthographical symbols which exists in Farsi and Arabic. The glottal stop in Arabic called Hamzah, “ ء ”, is identical with the same symbol called Izafah in Farsi.
Izafah final (i) or (yi) preceded by a hyphen The state of Izafah occurs when one word is added to another in order to complete the meaning of the former, called muzaf. The connecting mark of Izafah is represented by the vowel “ِ ” (zir) which appears at the end of the muzaf, but is practically never indicated in the script. If however the muzaf ends in such letters as ”الف“ (a), “ و “ (u) ی“” (y), and ”ه“(final silent “h”), the mark of Izafah becomes “ِء” (-yi). F. Tehrani, Chapter 7
Izafah Guidelines Library of Congress Romanization tables recommend: When the muzaf bears no special mark of Izafah, it is followd by –i: When the muzaf is marked by the addition of ” ء “, it is followed by –’i: When the muzaf is marked by the addition of ”ی“ it is followed by –yi: روی زمینru-yi zamin دریای خزرDarya-yi Khazar خانه ی بزرگkhanah-yi buzurg در باغdar-i bagh قالی ایرانqali-i Iran خانه بزرگkhanah-i buzurg قالئ ایرانqali-’i Iran خانۀ بزرگkhanah-’i buzurg
Hamzah or Glottal Stop (ی = ء ) Hamzah is used to mark the indefinite article It is romanized as (’) Examples: In Farsi, the mark for the indefinite article is the letter “ی” (y). When the word to which the article is attached ends in silent “h,” three different marks, all representing the same values, are employed according to the pleasure of calligraphers of manuscripts or printers, or there is a complete absence of any mark. These are: F. Tehrani, Chapter 7. MarkExample Glottal stop “ء” over the silent “h”, representing the existence of “ء” (y) in absentia. Khanah’i ziba - زیبا خانه Glottal stop “ء” preceded by and orthographically attached to ”ی“ (y), as in ”ئی“. Khanah’i ziba - زیبا خانه ئی Glottal stop as represented by “الف” proceeded by ”ی“ (y), as in ” ای“. Khanah’i ziba - زیبا خانه ای Pa’inAstanah’Khanah’Insha’Ra’fatRa’sMu’minSu’iz پائیناستانۀخانۀاِنشأرأفترأسمؤمنسوئز
Hamzah (ی = ء ) Library of Congress Recommends MarkExample When initial, “ء” is not represented in romanizationKhanah-’i ziba - زیبا خانه When medial or final, “ء” is romanized ‘Khanah-’i ziba - زیبا خانه When used as mark of Izafah, ء is romanized as –’iKhanah-’i ziba - زیبا خانۀ Astanah-’i dar – استانۀ دار When used to mark the indefinite article “ء”, is romanized as ‘i Khanah’i - خانۀ Farideh Tehrani “Negligence and Chaos”, 1991, p 127. “All the above variations of marks are related to one grammatical case and therefore, in romanization, they should be represented by one form, “Khanei ziba” (a beautiful house).”
Persian names Historical events in Iran have deeply impacted the Iranian Names. Under various cultural traditions Iranian personal names have changed from one of two simple names such as Kaykavus or Siyavash to complicated form of names such as Abu Majd Majdud ibn Adam Samai or Abu al- Najm pisar-I Qaws pisar-I Ahmad Manuchihri Damghani. For this reason it is logical to divide Persian names to 3 Periods of Ancient (Before 652), Middle ( ) and Modern (1926-)
Persian Personal Names 3 major periods: Before 652 or Bastani Names made up of one or two elements. 652 – 1926 or Miyanah Most complex Persian names (Pahlavi, Persian, Arabic, or Religious names) 1926 to Present or Mudirn
Names: Before 652 or Bastani Contain one or two elements Examples: One Element: Daryush – داریوش Two Elements: Mihrdad – مهرداد a ffix Compound names = Two personal names put together without Izafah. Example: Ardeshir Babakan – اردشیر بابکان
Names: 652 – 1926 or Miyanah Contain up to 7 elements (i.e. title of address, forename, genealogy, etc.) 2 groups: Pre-Islamic names (Zoroastrian names) Names of Arabic origin (Islamic or Shiah names) Distinction does not always hold. Sometimes two groups of names combine. Such as Jamshid ibn Masud (جمشید ابن مسعود) or Anushiravan ibn Khalid (انوشیروان ابن خالد)
7 elements of Period names consist of: A man may have several unvan, laqab, and nisbat. Or even two names, forming a compound. TitleUnvanعنوان NicknameKunyaکنیا ForenameNamنام GenealogyNasabنسب Title of honorLaqabلقب Nom de plumeTakhallusتخلص Relative adjectiveNisbatنسبت
Names: 1926 – Present or Mudirn 1926 onwards, family names were introduced in Iran The name in the present period consist of two parts: Forename Family name Example: Emad Khorasani - عماد خراسانی All unvans are considered absolute, among the few exceptions are: Aqa - آقا Banu - بانو Dushizah - دوشیزه Khanum - خانم Sayyid - سیدّ Iranian names from 1926 can be treated exactly as Western names, taking in to consideration the fact that middle names are not in use in Iran. Special care has to be taken in dealing with compound personal names and also with names with suffixes and prefixes that are in most cases connected to the previous word and affect the transliteration of the names. Consult Sharifi, Nasir, “Fihrist Kardan Asar-I Farsi”, 1959.