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1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Emerging & Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Part 1: Principles & etiology School of Health ShahidBeheshti University of Medical Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Emerging & Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Part 1: Principles & etiology School of Health ShahidBeheshti University of Medical Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Emerging & Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Part 1: Principles & etiology School of Health ShahidBeheshti University of Medical Sciences By: Hatami H. MD. MPH 2009

2 2 اوّلين موارد آنفلوآنزاي پرندگان در انسان ( 1997) اوّلين موارد آنفلوآنزاي خوكي در انسان ( 2009) Definitions

3 3 Definitions Epidemic - is an increase in disease above what you what would normally expect Pandemic - is a worldwide epidemic

4 4 Definition and public health importance Influenza is one of the known viral infectious diseases,Influenza is one of the known viral infectious diseases, has killed millions of peoples during pandemics, epidemics and sporadic forms.has killed millions of peoples during pandemics, epidemics and sporadic forms. One of the most remarkable features of influenza virus is the frequency of changes in antigenicity. One of the most remarkable features of influenza virus is the frequency of changes in antigenicity.

5 5 Definition and public health importance Alteration of the antigen structure of the virus leads to infection with variants to which little or no resistance is present in the population at risk.Alteration of the antigen structure of the virus leads to infection with variants to which little or no resistance is present in the population at risk. The strain currently circulating is a novel Influenza A(H1N1) The strain currently circulating is a novel Influenza A(H1N1) It is thought to be composed of avian, human, and swine components from various continentsIt is thought to be composed of avian, human, and swine components from various continents

6 6 Etiologic agent New Strain of Influenza VirusNew Strain of Influenza Virus First Detected in April 2009 in the U.S.First Detected in April 2009 in the U.S. Originally Called “Swine Flu”Originally Called “Swine Flu” Initial Tests Showed Many Genes Similar to Influenza Virus Occurs in PigsInitial Tests Showed Many Genes Similar to Influenza Virus Occurs in Pigs Further Studies - New Virus is Very Different from Viruses in North American PigsFurther Studies - New Virus is Very Different from Viruses in North American Pigs

7 7 Influenza Virus RNA virus Surface glycoproteins : H / HA- haemagglutinin N / NA - Neuraminidase

8 8 Family:Orthomyxoviridae segmented (8), ssRNA genomesegmented (8), ssRNA genome lipid enveloplipid envelop Genera:Influenzavirus Types A, B and C Subtypes:Human - H 1 N 1, H 2 N 2, H 3 N 2, H 5 N 1, H 9 N 2’ H 1 N 2, H 7 N 7 H 9 N 2’ H 1 N 2, H 7 N 7 Animals – H 1 to H 15, N 1 to N 9 Animals – H 1 to H 15, N 1 to N 9 Etiologic agent

9 9 Influenza sub-groups Influenza AInfluenza A –highly infective –infects many species –causes frequent widespread epidemics and pandemics Influenza BInfluenza B –only found in humans –capable of producing severe disease –cause of regional epidemics Influenza CInfluenza C –causes mild disease –humans are natural hosts but isolates also found in pigs –does not cause epidemics

10 10H1H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10 H11 H12 H13 H14 H15 H16 N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 Influenza A HA and NA Subtypes Other Animals

11 11 ويروس عامل پاندمي ؟؟ H5N1 ??H1N1 ?? HxNy ??

12 12 Genetic origins of (H1N1) 2009 PB2PB1 PA HA NP NA MP NS PB2PB1 PA HA NP NA MP NS PB2PB1 PA HA NP NA MP NS Classical swine, N. American lineage Avian, N. American lineage Human seasonal H3N2 Eurasian swine lineage Eurasian swine H1N1 N. American H1N1 (swine/avian/human) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, combining swine, avian and human viral components avian, human, and swine components

13 13 The strain currently circulating is a novel Influenza A(H1N1)The strain currently circulating is a novel Influenza A(H1N1) It is thought to be composed of avian, human, and swine components from various continentsIt is thought to be composed of avian, human, and swine components from various continents This strain is most likely a new subtype of A/H1N1 not previously seen in swine or humansThis strain is most likely a new subtype of A/H1N1 not previously seen in swine or humans Novel A(H1N1)

14 14 ويژگي ‌ هاي مهم ويروس آنفلوآنزاي A(H1N1) 2009  Infectivity  Pathogenicity  Virolence  Antigenicity  Immunogenicity

15 15 Case Definitions Suspect Case : a person with acute febrile respiratory illness with onset within 7 days of close contact with a person who is a confirmed case of S-OIV infection, or within 7 days of travel to community where there are one or more confirmed cases of S-OIV infection, or resides in a community where there are one or more confirmed cases of S-OIV infection. Probable Case : a person with an acute febrile respiratory illness who is positive for influenza A, but negative for H1 and H3 by influenza RT-PCR Confirmed Case : a person with an acute febrile respiratory illness with laboratory confirmed S-OIV infection at CDC by one or more of the following tests: real-time RT-PCR viral culture

16 16 قبل از سال 2009 سال 2009

17 17 Influenza Type A Viruses: Antigenic Shift YearSubtypeCommon Name Source 1889H2N2? 1900H3N8? 1918H1N1Spanish flu Avian 1957H2N2Asian flu Avian H3N2Hong Kong flu Avian H1N1Russian flu 1978 ? 2009 H1N1 Swin flu 3 Vi 1 Reassortant with avian virus

18 18 اين همان پاندمي بعدي است كه تا اوايل سال 1388 منتظر آن بوديم ! ؟ ولي آخرين جهانگيري آنفلوآنزا نخواهد بود 1976 – H1N1 Swine flu 1986 – H1N1 Swine virus 1988 – H1N1 Swine virus 1993 –Swine/avian recombinant 1995 – H7N7 Duck virus 1997 – H5N1 Avian virus 1999 – H9N2 Quail virus 2003– H5N1 Avian virus 2003 – H7N7 Avian virus 2004 – H5N1 Avian virus Timeline of human infection with novel influenza viruses ( ) 2004 – H7N3 Avian virus 2004 – H7N1 Avian virus Swine virus

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21 21 Genetic origins of (H1N1) 2009 PB2PB1 PA HA NP NA MP NS PB2PB1 PA HA NP NA MP NS PB2PB1 PA HA NP NA MP NS Classical swine, N. American lineage Avian, N. American lineage Human seasonal H3N2 Eurasian swine lineage Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, combining swine, avian and human viral components avian, human, and swine components

22 22 REFERENCES Interim Guidance for Clinicians on Identifying and Caring for Patients with Swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection, H1N1 Influenza virus, UCOP May 2009 Safety MeetingH1N1 Influenza virus, UCOP May 2009 Safety Meeting Anthony Fiore, Novel influenza A (H1N1) Epidemiology Update, CDC 2009 Evolution of the H1N1 pandemic, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control 31 July Preparing for pandemic flu, MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SENIOR SERVICES, Preparing Workplaces for an Influenza Pandemic, Rosemawati Ariffin, Infectious Disease Surveillance Section Disease Control Division Ministry of Health Malaysia, Michael Cooperstock, New influenza A(H1N1), University of Missouri Health Care System,

23 23 1) MMWR, Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children --- Southern California, March--April 2009, CDC, Internet site. 2) WHO, Influenza-like illness in the United States and Mexico, Internet site, The first Update, World Health Organization, 3) Jonathan S. Nguyen-Van-Tam, Alan W. Hampson, The epidemiology and clinical impact of pandemic influenza, Vaccine 21 (2003) 1762–1768.http://www.elsevier.com/locate/vaccine 11 June ) World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic, Dr Margaret Chan Director-General of the World Health Organization June ) Swine Flu, World Health Organization,Weekly Epidemiological Record, No. 18, 2009, 84, 149–160. 6) Spread of a Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus via Global Airline Transportation, n engl j med 361;2 nejm.org july 9, 2009, pp ) WHO, Influenza A(H1N1) - update 43, World Health Organization, Internet Site 8 ـ حاتمي، حسين : بسترهاي پژوهشي پزشكي نياكان ـ كتاب الكترونيك قانون در طب ابن سينا ـ معاونت تحقيقات و فنآوري وزارت بهداشت، سال 1387 ، صفحه %20162.pdf ساير منابع

24 24 9) Raphael Dolin, Influenza, in : Fauce, Braunwald, Kasper, Hauser, Longo, Jameson, Loscalzo, Harrison’s Principles of Internal medicine, McGraw-Hill medical publishing division, New York, 17 th ed. 2008, pp ) Key Facts About Swine Influenza May 2, 2009, Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Internet Site. 11) Kendall P. Myers W. Olsen, Gregory C. Gray, Cases of Swine Influenza in Humans: A Review of the Literature, CID, 2007:44, PP ) Shanta M. Zimmer, and Donald S. Burke, Historical Perspective — Emergence of Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses, n engl j med 361;3 nejm.org july 16, ) David M. Morens, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Anthony S. Fauci,. The Persistent Legacy of the 1918 Influenza Virus, The NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL of MEDICINE, n engl j med 361;3 nejm.org july 16, ) WHO global influenza, preparedness plan Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Global Influenza Programme, WHO/CDS/CSR/GIP/ ) Influenza H5N1, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, WEEKLY EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RECORD, No. 50, 12 DECEMBER ) Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A / (H5N1), reported to WHO, 1 July 2009.( اين گزارش در سايت مربوطه تا 21 مردادماه 1388 به قوت خود باقي بود و با گزارش جديدي جايگزين نشد ) (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2009_08_11/en/index.html) 17) WHO, New influenza A (H1N1) virus: global epidemiological situation, June 2009, Weekly Epidemiological Record, No. 25, 2009, 84, 249– ) Anna R Thorner, MD, Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of swine H1N1 influenza A, July 9, 2009.Anna R Thorner, MD

25 25 19) Laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 as officially reported to WHO by States Parties to the International Health Regulations, Pandemic (H1N1) update 58, 6 July :00 GMT. 20) Fredrich G Hayden, Influenza, In: Wingarden, Smith, Bennett, Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 23 rd ed. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2008, pp ) John J. Treanor, Influenza Virus, In : Mandell, Douglas, Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6 th ed., 2005, pp ـ حاتمي، حسين : نوپديدي آنفلوآنزاي پرندگان A(H5N1) و مروري بر آنفلوآنزاي انساني، در كتاب نوپديدي و بازپديدي بيماريها و سلامت حرفه ‌ هاي پزشكي، جلد سوم، سال 1384 ، صفحات ) Interim Guidance for Clinicians on Identifying and Caring for Patients with Swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection, May 4, :45 PM ET. 24 ـ حاتمي، حسين : اپيدميولوژي و كنترل آنفلوآنزا، در كتاب جامع بهداشت عمومي، ويراست دوم، چاپ دوم، سال 1387 ، صفحات ضميمه جلد اوّل. 25) Flowchart of Novel Influenza (A/H1N1) Diagnosis at Medical Institutes (24 May, 2009, 26) General Recommendations for Clinical Management of Influenza A(H1N1) Cases, Technical Document 2, Pan American Health Organisation, Office of the Assistant Director, Health Systems and Services Area, ) Viruses resistant to Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) identified, Weekly Epidemiological Record, 17 july 2009, No. 29, 2009, 84, 289– ) Influenza A (H1N1), Latest situation in the EMRO, Last update: 7 September ـ موارد قطعي آنفلوآنزاي جديد در ايران، مركز مديريت بيماريها، سال 1388، با تشكر از برادرم جناب آقاي دكتر گويا به خاطر ارسال اين آمار تا تاريخ 26/5/1388.

26 26 30) Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection --- Mexico, March--May, 2009, MMWR, June 5, 2009 / 58(21); )Baby delivered prematurely from swine flu patient dies. 32) WHO recommendations on pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccines, 33) WHO, Weekly Epidemiological Record, 3 JULY 2009, 84 th YEAR / 3 JUILLET, No. 27, 2009, 84, 269– ) WHO recommendations on pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccines, Pandemic 2009 briefing note ) Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the , northern hemisphere influenza season, World Health Organization, Internet Site. 36 ـ آنفلوآنزاي خوك، در كتاب بيماريهاي قابل انتقال بين انسان و حيوان، تاليف پروفسور جيمز اچ. استيل، ترجمه پرفسور اسماعيل ذوقي، زئونوزهاي ويروسي، جلد دوم، موسسه تحقيقات واكسن و سرم ‌ سازي رازي، سال 1376 ، صفحات ( با كسب اجازه از محضر استاد ذوقي ). 37) Robert W Derlet, Influenza, eMedicine Specialties > Infectious Diseases > Viral Infections, Jun 11, eMedicine SpecialtiesInfectious DiseasesViral Infections 38) Interim Guidance on Antiviral Recommendations for Patients with Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection and Their Close Contacts, May 6, 2009.http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/recommendations.htm. 39) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, Report of the extraordinary meeting on the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, 7 July 2009, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, No. 30, 2009, 84, 301– 308.

27 27 40) INTERIM CASE MANAGEMENT OF INFLUENZA A H1N1 FOR WHO AFRO May 19, ) Rapid-Test Sensitivity for Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans, Th e new england journal o f medicine, Copyright © 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society, n engl j med /nejmc , PP ) Laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 as officially reported to WHO by States Parties to the IHR (2005), Pandemic (H1N1) update ) Walter R. Dowdle, Influenza Pandemic Periodicity, Virus Recycling, and the Art of Risk Assessment, Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 12, No. 1, January ) Thomas R. Frieden, Tanja Popovic, …Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza With Vaccines, Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2009, Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, july 31, 2009 / Vol. 58 / No. RR-8, PP ) Pregnant Women and Novel Influenza A (H1N1), Virus: Considerations for Clinicians, June 30, ) Pandemic influenza in pregnant women, Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 briefing note 5, WHO, 47 ـ حاتمي، حسين : اپيدميولوژي و كنترل بيماريهاي مرتبط با بيوتروريسم، دانشگاه علوم پزشكي كرمانشاه و معاونت سلامت وزارت بهداشت، انتشارات صدا، سال 1382 ، صفحات ـ حاتمي، حسين، كاربردهاي باليني اپيدميولوژي در طب رايج و پزشكي نياكان، سال 1388 ، سايت اينترنتي وزارت بهداشت؛


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