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World Geography TodayChapter 19 The Persian Gulf and Interior Preview Section 1: Natural EnvironmentsNatural Environments Section 2: History and CultureHistory.

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Presentation on theme: "World Geography TodayChapter 19 The Persian Gulf and Interior Preview Section 1: Natural EnvironmentsNatural Environments Section 2: History and CultureHistory."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Geography TodayChapter 19 The Persian Gulf and Interior Preview Section 1: Natural EnvironmentsNatural Environments Section 2: History and CultureHistory and Culture Section 3: The Region TodayThe Region Today Chapter Wrap-Up

2 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Read to Discover What landforms and rivers can be found in the Persian Gulf area and the interior of Southwest Asia? How does the region’s physical geography affect its climates and biomes? What natural resources does the region have? Section 1: Natural Environments

3 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Arabian Peninsula—Mountains in the west and dry plains stretching to the Persian Gulf in the east Iraq—Wide plain of Mesopotamia, with two great rivers, Tigris and Euphrates Iran—Zagros, Elburz, and Kopet-Dag Mountains, along with high plateaus Afghanistan—Hindu Kush mountain range Section 1: Natural Environments Landforms and Rivers

4 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Question What factors influence the climate of Southwest Asia? Section 1: Natural Environments

5 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Factors Influencing Southwest Asia’s Climate Dry climates Humid near coast Lack of water Clear skies Plants adapted to dry conditions High Pressure Humidity at mountain peaks Rainfall on mountains Trees in mountain regions Orographic Effect Westerlies bring winter rains Cyclonic storms Southerly winds blow over water, drop rain on Elburz Mountains Winds Cooler temperatures in highlands Resorts in mountains Skiing in Iran Elevation Section 1: Natural Environments

6 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Water, a Scarce Resource Tigris and Euphrates are critical to Iraq. Farmers in northern Iran depend on rain; others rely on irrigation. Desert areas may have oases and wells. Desalinization of seawater is possible for wealthy countries. Section 1: Natural Environments Natural Resources

7 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Oil, Plentiful and Valuable Persian Gulf reserves are the world’s largest. Iraq, Oman, and Yemen also have deposits. Only Iran has substantial metallic ores. There are few other resources in the region for developing industry. Section 1: Natural Environments Natural Resources (continued)

8 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Read to Discover How have peoples, empires, and Islam affected the history of the Persian Gulf area and interior Southwest Asia? What are the major features of the region’s cultures? Section 2: History and Culture

9 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Question How have various peoples and empires affected the history and culture of countries in Southwest Asia? Section 2: History and Culture

10 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Various peoples and empires have shaped history. Sumerians built the first civilization and cities in the Fertile Crescent. Akkadians created the first real empire in the area, around 2350 B.C. Persians established a powerful empire around 550 B.C. Greeks and Romans later controlled the region. Section 2: History and Culture

11 World Geography TodayChapter 19 The rise of Islam had a major impact, beginning in the late A.D. 500s. Muhammad was born in Mecca, and established his Muslim community centered at Medina. Mongols arrived in the 1200s. Safavid Persians built a flourishing empire in the 1500s. Ottoman Turks also ruled the region in the 1500s. Section 2: History and Culture

12 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Arabs Largest ethnic group in entire region Arabic language dominant Muslim Persians Farsi language Dominant in Iranian society, hold most important positions Kurds Muslim In Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey Desire self-rule Language like Farsi Pashtun Largest ethnic group in Afghanistan Speak Pashtu language Several small tribes Cultures of Southwest Asia Section 2: History and Culture

13 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Islam is the unifying element. Arabs are the major group in the region; Arabic is the main language. Kurds live in borderlands of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. Cultural diversity is more complex in Iran and Afghanistan. Most Iranians are Persians; other Farsi-related groups include Baloch, Bakhtiari, and Hazara. Turkic languages are spoken by the Turkmen, Azeri, and Qashqai. Pashtun are the largest group in Afghanistan. Section 2: History and Culture Cultural Features

14 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Read to Discover On what activities do the region’s economies depend? What are the region’s cities like? What are some important issues in the region today? Section 3: The Region Today

15 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Question What activities drive the economy of the region? Section 3: The Region Today

16 World Geography TodayChapter million barrels a day from Saudi Arabia Economies modernized by oil wealth Oil-related manufactur- ing Mostly subsistence Barley, wheat Livestock— sheep, goats, cattle Farms in river valleys Commercial farming near cities Import food Tend herds of camels, goats, and sheep Make handicrafts Increased settling in towns due to lack of grazing land Wool rugs Use local materials and traditional designs Oil Production Agriculture Nomadic Herding Traditional Crafts Manufacturing Building materials Food products Oil refining, chemical manufactur- ing Household supplies Section 3: The Region Today

17 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Largest cities are the national capitals Ancient cities Old sections—Buildings one or two stories tall, twisting streets, bazaars, mosques Newer sections—Modern buildings, wide avenues, traffic, high-rise apartments, fast-food outlets Section 3: The Region Today Urban Environments

18 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Oil wealth—Can influence oil prices and affect economies world-wide, protect tradition, support governments, build military Power and authority—Democracy versus control by a few Role of Islam—Maintenance of Islamic traditions and laws Section 3: The Region Today Important Issues

19 World Geography TodayChapter 19 Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding the Main Ideas 1.In what ways has the plant life of the region adapted to the conditions there? 2.Why has Mesopotamia been such an attractive target for invasion throughout history? 3.What is the major language spoken in Iran? In Iraq, Afghanistan, and Saudi Arabia? 4.What changes are taking place in the traditional rural economy and culture of the region? 5.What are two important factors accounting for Saudi Arabia’s influence in world affairs today?


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