Presentation on theme: "The Persian Gulf and Interior"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Persian Gulf and Interior World Geography Today4/15/2017The Persian Gulf and InteriorPreviewSection 1: Natural EnvironmentsSection 2: History and CultureSection 3: The Region TodayChapter Wrap-UpChapter 19
2 Section 1: Natural Environments Read to DiscoverWhat landforms and rivers can be found in the Persian Gulf area and the interior of Southwest Asia?How does the region’s physical geography affect its climates and biomes?What natural resources does the region have?
3 Section 1: Natural Environments Landforms and RiversArabian Peninsula—Mountains in the west and dry plains stretching to the Persian Gulf in the eastIraq—Wide plain of Mesopotamia, with two great rivers, Tigris and EuphratesIran—Zagros, Elburz, and Kopet-Dag Mountains, along with high plateausAfghanistan—Hindu Kush mountain range
4 Section 1: Natural Environments QuestionWhat factors influence the climate of Southwest Asia?
5 Section 1: Natural Environments Factors Influencing Southwest Asia’s ClimateHigh PressureOrographic EffectElevationWinds• Westerlies bring winter rains• Cyclonic storms• Southerly winds blow over water, drop rain on Elburz Mountains• Cooler temperatures in highlands• Resorts in mountains• Skiing in Iran• Dry climates• Humid near coast• Lack of water• Clear skies• Plants adapted to dry conditions• Humidity at mountain peaks• Rainfall on mountains• Trees in mountain regions
6 Section 1: Natural Environments Natural ResourcesWater, a Scarce ResourceTigris and Euphrates are critical to Iraq.Farmers in northern Iran depend on rain; others rely on irrigation.Desert areas may have oases and wells.Desalinization of seawater is possible for wealthy countries.
7 Section 1: Natural Environments Natural Resources (continued)Oil, Plentiful and ValuablePersian Gulf reserves are the world’s largest.Iraq, Oman, and Yemen also have deposits.Only Iran has substantial metallic ores.There are few other resources in the region for developing industry.
8 Section 2: History and Culture Read to DiscoverHow have peoples, empires, and Islam affected the history of the Persian Gulf area and interior Southwest Asia?What are the major features of the region’s cultures?
9 Section 2: History and Culture QuestionHow have various peoples and empires affected the history and culture of countries in Southwest Asia?
10 Section 2: History and Culture Various peoples and empires have shaped history.Sumerians built the first civilization and cities in the Fertile Crescent.Akkadians created the first real empire in the area, around 2350 B.C.Persians established a powerful empire around 550 B.C.Greeks and Romans later controlled the region.
11 Section 2: History and Culture The rise of Islam had a major impact, beginning in the late A.D. 500s. Muhammad was born in Mecca, and established his Muslim community centered at Medina.Mongols arrived in the 1200s.Safavid Persians built a flourishing empire in the 1500s.Ottoman Turks also ruled the region in the 1500s.
12 Section 2: History and Culture ArabsPersians• Largest ethnic group in entire region• Arabic language dominant• Muslim• Farsi language• Dominant in Iranian society, hold most important positionsCultures of Southwest AsiaKurdsPashtun• Muslim• In Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey• Desire self-rule• Language like Farsi• Largest ethnic group in Afghanistan• Speak Pashtu language• Several small tribes
13 Section 2: History and Culture Cultural FeaturesIslam is the unifying element.Arabs are the major group in the region; Arabic is the main language.Kurds live in borderlands of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.Cultural diversity is more complex in Iran and Afghanistan.Most Iranians are Persians; other Farsi-related groups include Baloch, Bakhtiari, and Hazara. Turkic languages are spoken by the Turkmen, Azeri, and Qashqai.Pashtun are the largest group in Afghanistan.
14 Section 3: The Region Today Read to DiscoverOn what activities do the region’s economies depend?What are the region’s cities like?What are some important issues in the region today?
15 Section 3: The Region Today QuestionWhat activities drive the economy of the region?
16 Section 3: The Region Today Oil ProductionAgricultureNomadic HerdingTraditional CraftsManufacturing• 8.25 million barrels a day from Saudi Arabia• Economies modernized by oil wealth• Oil-related manufactur-ing• Mostly subsistence• Barley, wheat• Livestock— sheep, goats, cattle• Farms in river valleys• Commercial farming near cities• Import food• Tend herds of camels, goats, and sheep• Make handicrafts• Increased settling in towns due to lack of grazing land• Wool rugs• Use local materials and traditional designs• Building materials• Food products• Oil refining, chemical manufactur-ing• Household supplies
17 Section 3: The Region Today Urban EnvironmentsLargest cities are the national capitalsAncient citiesOld sections—Buildings one or two stories tall, twisting streets, bazaars, mosquesNewer sections—Modern buildings, wide avenues, traffic, high-rise apartments, fast-food outlets
18 Section 3: The Region Today Important IssuesOil wealth—Can influence oil prices and affect economies world-wide, protect tradition, support governments, build militaryPower and authority—Democracy versus control by a fewRole of Islam—Maintenance of Islamic traditions and laws
19 Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding the Main Ideas In what ways has the plant life of the region adapted to the conditions there?Why has Mesopotamia been such an attractive target for invasion throughout history?What is the major language spoken in Iran? In Iraq, Afghanistan, and Saudi Arabia?What changes are taking place in the traditional rural economy and culture of the region?What are two important factors accounting for Saudi Arabia’s influence in world affairs today?
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