Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Greece and Iran"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4: Greece and Iran 1000 B.C.E- 300 B.C.EBy: Sta’phon Smith
2Ancient Iran B.C.E.Iran’s location, bounded by mountains, deserts, and the Persian Gulf, left it open to attack from Central Asian nomadshigh mountains on the edgesand desert
3Ancient Iran (pt 2) Iran had limited natural resources Little Water, and Iran’s environment could only support a limited populationirrigation networks and underground tunnels were created because of heat issues
4The Rise of the Persian Empire northwestern Iran helped to destroy the Assyrian Empire in the late seventh century B.C.EThe Persian Empire was built up by a series of three kings: Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius ICyrus was the first
5CyrusCyrus captured the kingdom of Lydia (546 b.c.e.), thus bringing all of Anatolia under his control, and later took Mesopotamia (539 b.c.e.)Cambyses defeated Egypt and sent expeditions to Nubia and Libya. Under Darius I, the role of the Medes declined as the Persians asserted greater dominance
6Tomb of CyrusCyrus the Great (r B.C.E.), king of the Persians, was one of the most remarkable statesmen of antiquity. For all his greatness Cyrus retained a sense of perspective. His tomb, though monumental in size, is rather simple and unostentatious. Greek writers reported that it bore the following epitaph: "O man, I am Cyrus. I established the Persian Empire and was king of Asia. Do not begrudge me my memorial."
7Other Rulers and provinces From Darius on, the empire was divided into twenty provinces; a satrap who was related or connected to the royal court administered each provinceProvinces were required to pay annual tribute
8The central government tended to hoard so much gold and silver that these metals became scarce and more expensiveThe provinces were crossed by a system of well-maintained roads that converged on the capital city of Susa (in southwestern Iran)
9Persian ReligionThe major religion of the Persian Empire was Zoroastrianism. The origins of this religion are unclearThe most important text, the Gathas, (the hymns of Zoroastrianism), were written by Zoroaster who lived sometime between 1700 and 500 B.C.E
10ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism shows the existence of a dualistic universe in which the god of good, Ahuramazda, was locked in an epic struggle against the god of evil, Angra MainyuZoroastrianism’s dualism may have had an influence on Judaism and thus on Christianity
11ColonizationColonization introduced the Greeks to new ideas, but it also sharpened their sense of Greek identityOne of the most significant new developments of this period was the invention of coins in Lydia (western Anatolia) in the early sixth century B.C.E.
12Greek religioninvolved the worship of anthropomorphic sky gods, many of which represented forces of natureThese gods were worshiped at state ceremoniesAnimal Sacrifice was a central part of religious practice and helped to create a sense of community
13Wars and moreIn 499 B.C.E. the Greek cities of Anatolia, aided by Eretria and Athens, staged a five-year revolt against Persian ruleThis led to the Persian Wars—two Persian attacks on Greece.In the First Persian War, the generals of Darius I captured Eretria and attacked Athens (490 b.c.e.)The attack on Athens was foiled when Athenian forces defeated the Persians at Marathon.
14Socrates turned the focus of philosophy to ethics probed the precise meaning of wordscreated the Socratic method of question and answerHe was tried on charges of corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the city and sentenced to death.
15Platowrote dialogs exploring concepts such as justice, excellence, and wisdom.Plato taught that the world as we see it is a pale reflection of a higher, ideal reality.
16Alexander the great Alexander was born around mid July 356 B.C. In 336 B.C. his father Philip was assassinated, and Alexander the Great became ruler of Macedonia.In 323 B.C. Alexander the Great returned to Babylonia where he became ill suddenly, and died. The cause of his death is unknown.Alexander the great conquered the Persian Empire and is considered one of the greatest military leaders.