3divided into twenty provinces Ruling a large empire is a difficult task. How did Darius organize the administration of the realm?How was the Political government organized?divided into twenty provincesWhat was the role of the Satrap?each ruled by a Persian satrap or governorconnected by marriage to the royal courtprimarily responsible for collecting and forwarding the tribute to the king.
4How did Darius maintain control of his empire? Persian control -building and patrolling the royal roadsPostal system / trade routescombining central organization with local traditions and ordinances.Adapted the use of secret agents (used formerly by Assyrians)Why were the Persians successful rulers?willing to adapt to local circumstances, to learn from those with experience, and to utilize the skills of non-Persians
5Describe Persian religious beliefs during the height of the Persian Empire. Explain Zoroastrianism –Founder Zoroaster may have lived between ( BCE)fostered the belief in one supreme deityencouraged moral and ethical virtuespromised salvationSaw the world as a struggle between good and evilGood will prevailused by Persian leaders to portray the king as having a mandate to bring order to a tumultuous world.
6How did geography and the environment affect Greek development? Lacking fertile river valleys, Greece depended entirely on rainfall for agriculturerocky terrain small mountain rangeslack of navigable rivers made overland travel, trading, and communication very difficult.
7Environment Small city-states developed How did environmental constraints shaped Greek political structures, commerce, and society?Small city-states developedLack of natural resources and the need for agricultural supplies spurred the growth of maritime commerce.Contact with other peoples brought in new ideas and technologies.
8Greek Gods People emulated the Gods’ behavior Anthropomorphic Influenced peoples’ actionsGods lived on Mt. OlympusEach God controlled a specific part of the universe.
9Built between 447 BCE and 438 BCE. The ParthenonDedicated to the Goddess Athena Parthenon.Built between 447 BCE and 438 BCE.
10The Olympic Games (776 BCE) Held to honor ZeusTrade and wars stopped during gamesOnly men who spoke Greek were allowed to participate later included Greek coloniesIndividual events rather than teamWomen were not allowed
11Governing the City-States Between 750 B.C.E and 500 B.C.E, the Greeks evolved different forms of government.
12Review of Governmentsmonarchy: [‘single ruler'] A government in which a king or queen exercises central power (chosen by birth; hereditary)aristocracy: ['best-rule'] noble land- holding families (hereditary distinction)oligarchy: ['few-rule'] small group of business elites like, merchants, farmers and artisans (wealth distinction)
13New Technique: Phalanx Each city-state had citizen-soldiersA new method of fighting emerged called “phalanx”A massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers that moved in unison
14Sparta Military Society Gov: led by two kings and 20 counselors largest and most sophisticated army in the known worldForbade: trade, travel and free speech!Needed army to control slave (helot) populationOutnumbered 20 to 1Control lasted over 250 years.
15Reading: Sparta, The training of Youth Spartan Military LifeArmy governed lifeWhat did it mean for a man?Trained in military-Started at age 7-Marry at 20 but livein barracks-Retire at 6053 years of service!Males can vote at 30Reading: Sparta, The training of Youth
17Pericles Pericles was crucial to the expansion of democracy Allowed the freedom of speech and thought
18Pericles’ Funeral Oration “Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people.We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs not as harmless, but as a useless character.”--Pericles’ 431 B.C.
19Athenian DemocracyOnly those with both parents born in Athens could have citizenshipAthens had a direct democracy: all male citizens had the right to attend the Assembly and a vote.met 40 times a yearNo elections, leaders chosen by drawing lotsMember of 500
20Was Greek democracy “democratic”? Greek democracy was not truly “democratic” by modern American standards. Why?because a sizable portion of the population (women, slaves 1/3 of the population, and immigrants) were not citizensOnly 10 to 15 percent of the population
21Women: Athens VS Sparta Taught to read and writeWomen were trained in athletic eventsProduce strong healthy babies (prefer males)Taught loyalty to the stateHad Property RightsNo political powerAthensSeldom allowed in publicNo formal educationCould not own propertyPrimarily responsible for house and domestic dutiesNo political powerMarriagePurpose was to create male offspring
22The Persian Wars: Overview The threat of the powerful Persian empire united the Greek city-states.Around 500B.C. Greeks were attacked by the PersiansGreeks joined together to fight Persians3 Persian Wars ( BCE)
23The Impact of the Persian Wars Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state.Athens used the Delian League (alliance of 150 city states) to create an Athenian empire.With Pericles as its leader, Athens enters into its Golden Age!
24The Peloponnesian War: The Alliance System Fails!
25The Peloponnesian War: CAUSES Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian domination.Sparta formed the Peloponnesian LeagueSparta and Athens rivaling for supremacy…
26The Peloponnesian War 27 year war ensues Pericles brings all the people into the cityHe depends on the navy, high walls and food supplies to string out the war
27A Mysterious Plague Hits Athens! Plague destroys 1/3 of Athenian populationPlague sweeps through a total of 3 times during the warGenerals are dead, Pericles is dead, no leadership
28The Peloponnesian War: Effects Persia gained control of many city-statesDefeated democracy in GreeceSparta would eventually fall to PersiaAthen’s cultural influence continues
29Great Philosophers of Greece What is philosophy?The word “philosophy” comes from the Greeks.“Philosophy” by Greek definition means “love of wisdom.”The Greeks believed that nature followed general rules called “natural laws,” which could be discovered by reason.
31Socrates No written records His student Plato wrote about him He believed the goal of education was to improve peoples’ lives“…the unexamined life is not worth living.”-Socrates
32Socrates “Socratic Method” question & answer approach; helped people recognize they didn’t have all the answers!“Know thy self”…Self-examination leads to correct behavior and ethical living.
33Socrates on Trial----WHY? Seen by many to not believe in the godsFeared that he was corrupting the minds of the youth!He is found guilty and put to death! A scapegoat…
34Great Philosophers of Greece “The Death of Socrates” Painted in France in 1787How does it depict this famous man?-Noble, dignified & forceful.-He is ready to meet his death but not before he speaks his mind!
35Started a school called PlatoAuthor ofThe RepublicNo family or personal property; common good governmentYet the government should regulate every aspect of its citizens lives!Started a school calledThe Academy
36Plato Rulers should be unselfish. Believed that only the most intelligent should participate in gov’t.Believed in finding “truth” through reason!
37Aristotle Did not agree with his teacher… Knowledge should be gained from all the senses.Major influence in Western European cultureBelieved women were just “infertile men…” and inadequate
38Aristotle Wrote Politics Supports family & personal property A government that features three social classesFavored a single, strong rulerAble leaders that have a respect for the lawResponsibilities of citizens to their government
39The Writing of History Scientific Medicine Begins! The Greeks applied reason, observation, and logic to the study of history and medicine.Herodotus is called the “Father of History.”Herodotus stressed the importance of research.MedicineHippocrates & the Hippocratic Oath – all patients must be treated regardless of classHippocratic Oath
40Alexander the Great (336-323) B.C.E. AccomplishmentsConquers Egypt, Mediterranean Sea region, Persia, and far as PakistanDeclared pharaoh in EgyptAlexander had encouraged blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs.Builds capital of Alexandria and many other “Alexandria's”! See map
42The Legacy of Alexander 327 B.C.E. attempts to conquer IndiaSoldiers rebel from 11 years of exhaustionAlexander dies in Babylon of malaria after 13 years as kingEmpire broken up into 3 Macedonian dynastiesAlexander’s most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture
43Explain what is meant by the Hellenistic Age. The Hellenistic Age was a period that followed the conquests of Alexanderlasting from about 323 to 30 B.C.E.During the Hellenistic Age, Greek culture acted as the dominant influencenortheastern Africa and western AsiaThe Hellenistic Age boasted new forms of science, art, and scholarship.The city of Alexandria in Egypt epitomized the Hellenistic Age through its art and architecture, its great library, and its cosmopolitan culture.Long after Greeks ceased to exert any direct political control on those areas, their culture remained a powerful influence.