3 Section 3 Europeans Claim Muslim Land Europeans Grab TerritoryRussia and the Crimean WarAccess to sea trade routes focuses attention on Ottoman landsCrimean War is an example of geopoliticsRUS attacks Ottomans in 1853 to gain warm-water port & access to Mediterranean SeaBrit & FR join in to stop RUS expansionRUS loses, but Ottomans are shown to be weak; still lose land b/c of rebellionsBy 1914 Ottoman Empire declined to 1/3 of its greatest sizeEgypt Initiates ReformsMilitary and Economic ReformsMuhammad Ali breaks away from Ottoman control and rules EgyptBegins series of reforms in military and economymodernizes to keep out Euro controlShifts Egypt agriculture from food crops to cash crops (similar to Euro colonial policies)Geopolitics: taking land for its strategic location or products
4 Persia Pressured to Change The Suez CanalEgypt builds Suez CanalModernization creates huge debtBrits take over financial control of canal, occupy Egypt in 1882Persia Pressured to ChangeThe exploitation of PersiaRus wants access to Persian Gulf and Indian OceanBrit wants Persian oil and AfghanistanPersia gives in to Western businessesBattle over TobaccoPersian ruler agrees to allow Brit to export tobaccoPersians boycott tobacco, leads to riots1907, Rus and Brit seize and divide Persia between them as spheres of influenceExploit: to take advantage of
5 Group Work Critical Thinking Questions In groups of 4, work together to answer the following questions:What part did internal corruption play in the decline of Ottoman power?Why did the discovery of oil in Persia increase the value of Ottoman territory?In what way were the RUS, BR, and FR motivations in the Crimean War similar?How was Muhammad Ali’s promotion of cotton production similar to Euro imperialists’ actions in AFR?Why was the completion of the Suez Canal cause for international celebration?What advantages did granting business concessions to Western countries offer Persia?How did Persia’s granting of concessions eventually lead to its takeover by BR & RUS?
6 Critical Thinking Answers It led to a weakened economy and technological stagnation.The oil had to pass through Ottoman land to Europe.They all wanted to control Ottoman territoryBoth substituted production of cash crops for food cropsIt greatly decreased the time needed to travel from Euro to East AFR and AsiaIncome, development of their resources, and participation in world eventsConcessions allowed Western countries to establish an economic foothold in Persia, which they exploited when the Persian gov’t lost control of the country.
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