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THE PERSIAN AND PELOPONESSIAN WARS

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1 THE PERSIAN AND PELOPONESSIAN WARS
World History Ms. FitzPatrick

2 Minoan Civilization of Crete
B.C.E. Known through legendary accounts of King Minos and the Minotaur Palace at Knossos – murals; flush toilets, hot and cold running water; labyrinth Sea traders Writing system – undeciphered Polytheistic

3 Minoan Art

4 Minoan Art

5 GREEK DARK AGES Dorians invaded mainland – primitive; illiterate
Period of isolation – little trade, decline in technology; decline in population Warfare amongst tribal groups Interaction with Phoenicians revived Greek city-states – trade; alphabet

6 RISE OF GREEK CITY-STATES
Polis – hundreds of independent Acropolis Agora Citizens Agricultural economic base Hoplite army – phalanx formation Evolved from Tyrannies to Oligarchies (Sparta) or Democracies (Athens)

7 City States Compared Athens Sparta Democracy Draco (621) – harsh code
Cleisthenes (507) – Constitution – Assembly, Council of 500, lottery, jury system, ostracism Citizen – inherited; after 507 BCE free males (still no vote) Metic – free, non-slave foreigners Women – sheltered, married 13-14 Education – males – art, geometry, Illiad and Odyssey memorized; music; gymnastics; later rhetoric Architecture, drama, sculpture Oligarchy 2 kings Counsel of Elders Citizens – native born males Helots – slaves Perioeci – free individuals who worked for Spartans Women – well-fed, married age 19, some influence No currency, no trade, no attention paid to art, literature, philosophy or science Loyalty to state

8 The Persian Wars: Historical Origins
Between BCE, Greek city-states established 400+ colonies on the shores of the Mediterranean and Black Seas Relieved population burdens Provided resources and outlets for trade

9 The Persian Wars: Historical Origins
In 546 B.C.E. King Cyrus leads Persian armies to conquer Greek city-states in Ionia (Asia Minor) 499 B.C.E. Ionians revolt Aided by Athenians King Darius I defeats Greeks after 5 years King Darius I plots revenge against Greek mainland

10 Battle of Marathon In 490 B.C.E., King Darius sent Persian fleet across Aegean Sea Word of attack spread to Athenian Generals Professional runner Pheidippides sent to Sparta to request help (covered 150 miles in two days) Persians landed at Marathon

11 Battle of Marathon General Miltiades convinced Athenians to meet Persians at Marathon Athenians positioned on high ground of mountain range overlooking plains of Marathon 50,000 Persians camped on the shore below Decision to wait while they held high ground Pheidippides returned with news that Sparta would not send help for another five days due to religious festival

12 Greeks v. Persians

13 The Greeks Hoplite Infantry
Heavy armor of solid bronze chest plate; smaller plated armor Hoplon shield of wood and bronze Primary weapon long spear and short sword Phalanx formation

14 The Persians Infantry and Calvary Tunic, no metal plates
Wicker and leather shield Short spear and composite bow – “arrows could blot out the sun”

15 THE PERSIAN WARS: BATTLE OF MARATHON
After 8 days, Persian began to board ships and Greeks feared attack on Athens Miltiades ordered army into battle Miltiades arranged formation with a weak centerline Formation was half a mile wide

16 THE PERSIAN WARS: BATTLE OF MARATHON
Persian army four times larger The “Persian Immortals” in the center and weaker troops on wings Persians were surprised Greeks would give up high ground

17 THE PERSIAN WARS: BATTLE OF MARATHON
Greeks advanced down the hill At 200 yards, Persians let loose a torrent of arrows Greeks charged Persians at a run and arrows missed target Armies met head on Persians pushed back weak Greek centerline

18 THE PERSIAN WARS: BATTLE OF MARATHON
Athenians surrounded them and defeated them with superior arms and shields Persians retreated to their ships Persian casualties 6,400 Greek casualties 192

19 The Marathon Pheidippides ran 26 miles back to Athens with news of the victory at Marathon He died shortly after delivering his message Term “marathon” refers to a long distance race

20 “Wooden Wall” Oracle at Delphi foretold that Greeks would be safe behind a wooden wall Athenian General Themistocles believed wooden wall meant a fleet of ships were needed to defeat the Persians at sea Athens increased fleet from 40 to 200 triremes between 489 – 480 B.C.E.

21 Athenian Naval Power Cover distance quickly under oar or sail – 7 knots Powered by 170 rowers on 3 levels Can ram enemy ships in battle Athenian crews best in Mediterranean

22 Persian King Xerxes Succeeded his father King Darius in 485 B.C.E.
Determined to pursue his father’s plan For years a slave at dinner would whisper in his ear, “Remember the Athenians”.

23 The Persian Wars: Battle at Thermopylae
In 480 B.C.E., Persian King Xerxes invaded Greece from North with 200,000 men accompanied by off-shore supply ships Spartans led Greek defense

24 The Persian Wars: Battle at Thermopylae
King Leonidas plan to delay action on land at Thermopylae a mountain pass north of Athens Held the Persians for 3 days Betrayed by Northern Greeks who showed Persians a way through the mountains enabling them to attack the Greeks from the rear Leonidas sent army to safety except for his own 300 men and was determined to hold the pass All were killed Persians marched unopposed to Athens and burned city

25 The Persian Wars: Battle at Thermopylae
Advance of the Persians and Route taken around pass

26 The Persian Wars: The Battle at Salamis
However, General Themistocles had time to carry out plan Drew Persian fleet into strait of Salamis and defeated heavy and crowded Persian ships Greek ships smaller, easier to maneuver and fitted with rams Persians retreated in 479 B.C.E. to Asia Minor

27 GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS Idealism in Art

28 The Peloponnesian War: Historical Origins
Delian League established Alliance of 140+ Greek city-states led by Athens against Persians Athens provided naval power and army and given control of treasury (on island of Delos) Other city-states contributed money No city-state could withdraw from League without unanimous consent League succeeded in freeing Ionia from Persians and sweeping Aegean Sea free of pirates

29 The Peloponnesian War: Athens v. Sparta

30 The Peloponnesian War: Historical Origins
Athens used Delian League to build Athenian Empire Used funds to rebuild Athens (Parthenon) Other city-states adopted Athenian coin system Insisted criminal cases be heard only in Athens Used Athenian troops to suppress revolts by commoners in other city-states Athenian port of Piraeus became the most important commercial center in the Mediterranean

31 The Peloponnesian War: 431-404 B.C.E.
Sparta led an alliance of city-states opposed to Athens Athens dominated because of naval power Sparta made a deal with Persians to return Ionia in exchange for gold to build its own fleet In 430 B.C.E., plague weakened Athens Killed Pericles in 429 B.C.E. and 1/3 of population Spartans destroyed Athenian fleet and sieged city of Athens with barricade Athens surrendered in 404 B.C.E.

32 The Peloponnesian War: Results
City-states declined in population Fields and orchards destroyed by warfare High unemployment Thousands of young men became mercenaries in Persian army Distrust of democracy

33 The Peloponnesian War: Results
Sparta harshly and incompetently ruled other city-states from 404 – 371 B.C.E. Thebes led an alliance to overthrow Sparta Thebians were weak rulers and were overthrown in 362 B.C.E. Continuous fighting weakened city-states Macedonia invaded and conquered Greece

34 RISE OF MACEDONIA PHILIP II
Balkan Peninsula Language included some Greek words 359 B.C.E. Philip II becomes king Had spent 3 years in city-state of Thebes Admired Greek culture and military organization

35 Philip II: Three Goals Create a strong standing army
Imitated Greek phalanx formation Developed first catapult Unify the Greek states under Macedonia Weakened by Peloponnesian War Conquered, bribed polis leaders, allied polis through marriage By 338 B.C.E., Philip II conquered all of Greece except Sparta Destroy the Persian Empire

36 ALEXANDER THE GREAT Student of Aristotle
Respected commander in Macedonian army 336 B.C.E. became king at age 20 Sought to carry out plan to destroy Persian Empire

37 ALEXANDER’S EMPIRE

38 ALEXANDER THE GREAT Goals
Punish Persia for its invasion 150 years earlier Unite Europe and Asia combining the best of Greek and Persian culture 334 B.C.E. commenced “West Against the East” campaign Took 30,000 soldiers and 5,000 cavalry into Asia Minor Freed Ionian city-states of Persian rule

39 ALEXANDER THE GREAT Major Accomplishments in Campaign
Syria: forces prevailed and King Darius III forced to flee Captured Phoenician ports and cut off Persian fleet from supply bases Entered Egypt and was welcomed as Pharaoh Invaded Mesopotamia near Tigris River and smashed Darius’ s main army

40 ALEXANDER THE GREAT Major Accomplishments in Campaign
Captures key cities of Persian Empire: Babylon, Persepolis and Susa 331 B.C.E. King Darius III killed by one of his own generals and Alexander declares himself Ruler of the Persian Empire 327 B.C.E. Led soldiers to Indus Valley After 3 years, soldiers refused to go on Alexander headed back and established capital at Babylon – died in 323 B.C.E.

41 DIVISION OF EMPIRE Ptolemy Seleucus Antigonus

42 LEGACY: HELLENISTIC CULTURE
Spread of Greek culture; mixed with Egyptian, Persian and Indian culture Concentrated in Cities – Alexandria – museum and research library; Pharos Movement for opportunity – women’s rights expanded

43 LEGACY: HELLENISTIC CULTURE
Astronomy – Aristarchus (Earth revolves around sun); Ptolemy (Earth center); Eratosthenes (size of the Earth) Math – Euclid (geometry); Archimedes (value of pi, physics) Philosophy Cynicism – give up the material and live simply with nature Stoicism – Zeno; focus on reason, ignore emotion; live virtuous life in harmony with God’s natural laws of the universe Epicureanism – live virtuously to avoid pain; harmony of mid and body; gods uninterested in humans

44 LEGACY: HELLENISTIC CULTURE
Realism in Art


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