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Persian and Peloponnesian Wars

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1 Persian and Peloponnesian Wars

2 Rise of Persia Anatolia, Asia Minor Cyrus (559-530) Darius (521-489)
Took over surrounding peoples Conquered Lydian king Croesus, taking control of the entire Asia Minor territory and turning it into an Empire – unification Benevolent and talented ruler Darius ( ) Seized power Centralized government and moved capital Divided into provinces Absolute power Paid taxes, gave king gifts, and paid him tribute for his protection Forced labor and mandatory military service Considered subjects slaves

3 Beginning of Persian War
Ionian Revolt (499 BC) Greeks on coast of Asia Minor Conquered by Persians Set up puppet tyrants Resented them and revolted Revolt suppressed Darius invades Greece First expedition, conquers Thrace, Thasos, and Macedonia

4 Battle at Marathon (490 BC)
Darius returns to Greece Athens meets them at Marathon Asks for Spartan aid, but they cannot come until end of a religious festival Miltiades leads Athenians 2:1, but Athenians win Herodotus reported that Greeks were killed, and 6, Persians died Darius leaves Greece

5 Aftermath of Marathon Xerxes Rise of Themistocles in Athens
Successor of Darius Had heralds came to Greece demanding earth and water to show submission – many complied Marches on Greece Rise of Themistocles in Athens Building of Triremes in Athens Light, fast, maneuverable warships with three banks of oars Hellenic League 31 city-states

6 Battle at Thermopylae (480 BC)
Leonidas, one of the two kings of Sparta Marched in with 7000 men to Thermopylae Greek traitor revealed the existence of a hidden road over mountain pass Leonidas dismissed most of his troops 300 Spartans, 100 Thebans and Thespians Act over heroism, but victory for the Persians (opening up central Greece for the enemy) Delayed Persians some

7 Battle of Salamis (479) Persians march on Athens
Athenians have already fled city Persians burn the city Themistocles tricks Xerxes into attacking the Greeks awaiting in the narrows at Salamis Greeks use smaller, faster ships to their advantage Destroy 200 Persian ships - win the battle

8 Initial Aftermath Xerxes leaves and returns to Persia
He left Maridonius in Greece Later that year the Persians faced the largest Greek army yet Greeks are led by Spartan, Pausanias Persians are defeated and leave Greece

9 After the Persia War Hellenic identity formed in Greece Athens
Ship rowers (the lowest class) are now important, so hard for aristocrats to keep power away from them More democratic reforms Equality among men of Athens Became a major cultural center Drama in Athens

10 Delian League To prevent a 3rd invasion of the Persians
Led by the Athenians Located at the island of Delos Annual contributions in ships or money Athenian controlled the treasury Goals: a) containment of Persia b) gathering of booty as compensations c) simple revenge Fought Persians for 25 years Led by Cimon (Miltiades’ son) Against more democratic reforms, pro-Sparta Expelled Persians from Europe and Ionia

11 Athenian Empire Treasury transferred to Athens
Athens began forcing cities to join the League When Naxos wanted to leave, Athens forcibly prevented them from withdrawing Revolt of 465 Tensions rising against Sparta Pericles rose to power in Athens Elected one of the ten strategoi (military leaders) repeatedly Full-blown democracy in Athens Treasury transferred to Athens Use money for building programs (Parthenon)

12 First Peloponnesian War (460-445)
Athens builds long walls Athens fighting against Corinth, Sparta (ally) joins in Cimon returns from exile negotiates 5 year truce (451) Athens abandoned alliance with Argos 30 Years Peace (445) neither state was to interfere with the allies of the other neutrals were free to join either side no allies were permitted to switch sides

13 Peloponnesian War (431-404) Source: Thucydides’ History
Tensions began to rise again Athens was the aggressor Sparta declares war

14 Beginning of the War (431-421)
Pericles refused to engage Spartans in hoplite war Had all of the farmers living outside of the walls to come into the city Spartans ravaged the land outside of Athens Athens thought the Spartans would get tired of ravaging, and Spartans thought the Athens would not stand for their land being ravaged, would become frustrated and either seek Peace or overrule Pericles and come out and fight Both sides were wrong Next year – horrible plague in Athens (1/3 died), including Pericles Spends next years rebuilding strength in Athens

15 Invasion of Sicily ( ) Three generals: Nicias, Alcibiades, Lamachus Neither could agree Alcibiades was called to trial (Herms incident), Lamachus was killed, leaving Nicias in charge Nicias suffered from kidney disease and asked to be recalled, instead they sent another commander, Demosthenes (who advocated immediate withdraw once arriving) Syracusans took Nicias’ army Athenians lost 10,000s men

16 War in the Aegean ( ) Athenian naval superiority shattered after Sicily Subjects began revolting 20,000 slaves left Athens for Sparta Athens began swinging back to Oligarchy (411) Council of 400 in Athens (turns into the 5000), democratic fleet (the assembly) stationed at Samos Athens recalls Alcibiades Wins battles with the fleet  democracy restored Spartans loose their admiral-in-chief

17 War in Aegean continues
Sparta set about building a new naval force and negotiating for Persian support Sold out the freedom of the Greek cities of Ionia for Persian gold Spartans offer peace, on the basis of status-quo Athens refuses

18 Final Years of the War (407-404)
Alcibiades puts Antiochus in charge with orders not to engage the Spartans He does and they loose Alcibiades’ career in Athens is finished for good Battle of Arginusae (405) Athenians offered freedom to slaves who would join the navy Huge naval battle which they sunk 75 Peloponnesian ships 20,000 Greeks lost their lives Sparta again offer peace on the basis of status-quo Athens declined

19 Final Years continued Battle of Aegospotami (405)
Decisive Spartan victory Captured 171 ships Cut Athens off from their source of grain near the black sea Lysander accepts surrender of allies of Athens replace democracies with oligarchies Athens agree to treaty Destruction of Long Walls Surrender all but 12 ships Exiles would be recalled (oligarchy friendly) Sparta’s ally 30 Tyrannts 30 delegated by Sparta to run Athens as an oligarchy

20 After the War in Athens 30 Tyrants
Spartan-friendly oligarchic body Critias is one of the most important of them Murdered hundreds democratic supporters 3000, friendly to the oligarchy who they protected Many went into exile - dangerous group building outside of Athens March on Athens and over throw the city Sparta intervened, got rid of the 30 and gave amnesty to all others Socrates’ trail – found guilty and forced to drink Hemlock

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