Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Egyptian Civilization. Vocabulary for Chapter 4 Delta – a triangular piece of rich, fertile land usually at the mouth of a river. Formed by."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4 Egyptian Civilization
Vocabulary for Chapter 4 Delta – a triangular piece of rich, fertile land usually at the mouth of a river. Formed by soil deposits. Cataract – waterfalls ; rapids, Arid – dry desert ; hot ; little to no precipitation; little to no vegetation Predict – to tell in advance Afterlife – life after death ; soul live on not your physical body Diplomacy – relations between countries; countries discuss political ideas – Positive – Allies //// Negative – Enemy Nation-State – a region with a united people and a single government Dynasty – a series of rulers from the same family Vizier – chief advisor to the Pharaoh ; carried out the Pharaoh’s orders Pyramid – a large stone structure ; tombs for Egyptian rulers, Pharaoh’s, and their servants ; triangular prism Mummy – a preserved body ; usually of someone of importance ; body is wrapped in linen ; would take out all the organs except the heart. Civil War – war between two groups with in the same nation or country. Famine – food shortages; a long famine will destroy parts of civilizations Cost-Benefit Analysis – an examination made to decide whether to carry on trade Pharaoh - Egyptian king or queen ; means “great house” Reign – time of rule ; how long a ruler was in charge Rural – an area that is not completely developed by humans ; may have a lot of vegetation and not many people Hieroglyphs – pictures or symbols that stand for sounds, words, or ideas Papyrus – paper like material invented by the Egyptians ;
Lesson 1 The Nile Valley
Describe the Nile river. Include location, flow, length, & nick-name Ancient Egyptians gave the Nile. The Nile river is located east central Africa and flows south to north. The Nile River is 4,160 miles long making it the longest river in the world. The Ancient Egyptians called the Nile the “Giver of Life” because the Nile River flooded and after the flood water receded silt was left behind to create fertile soil, good for farming.
List ways Egyptians controlled the Nile. Built dams to help fill the canals Built ditches, or canals, to help water their plants Irrigation systems to help water their crops
How did the unpredictability of the Nile contribute to the formation of polytheistic beliefs in ancient Egypt? Made up stories that tried to explain what happened. Over time the stories of the floods turned into the formation of the god, Hapi.
How did the Nile support early civilization in ancient Egypt? The Nile supported civilization in ancient Egypt because it deposited silt along the banks making the soil fertile. Also, it provided fresh water for people and plants. Allowed the develop of trade and help people develop better means of water travel.
Describe ancient Egypt's major river using the words delta and cataract. Lower Egypt lies at the Nile’s mouth and is made up mainly of the Nile’s delta. One may find more cataracts towards the Nile’s source in Upper Egypt.
How did Egypt’s location make it an ideal center for trade? Egypt's location made it an ideal center for trade because of the Nile River. Also, because it was the crossroads of three continents. (Asia, Europe, and Africa)
What agriculture items were some Egyptian towns able to trade? Some agriculture items were wheat, barley, and spices
Why do you think the Egyptians believed in gods and goddesses? They believed in gods and goddesses because they wanted to make sense of the world around them and explain naturally occurring events. For example flooding and drought.
What were some of the technologically advances that allowed Egypt to go from small villages to a powerful civilization? The Egyptians developed sails for ship so that they could sail upstream, against the current. Also, irrigations systems so that they may water there crops. Built dams and dikes to help control the yearly flooding. Built pools to save water for when there might be a drought. Built tools to help till the land.
The Old Kingdom
Egypt Unites Egypt united about 3,100 B.C. because King Narmer conquered Lower Egypt and built the great city of Memphis, it’s new capital. The capital is where the government leaders are located and work. King Narmer created the world’s first nation-state King Narmer ruled the first of 31 different dynasties. The Egyptian Empire lasted more than 3,000 years and is divided into three parts: The Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms
The Pharaoh's influence / importance The Egyptians considered the Pharaoh as a living god. that meant the pharaoh could do whatever he wanted. (never wrong) that meant the Egyptian people did not have freedoms like we do in the U.S.A could control the Nile flooding The Pharaoh employed a vizier, Pharaoh chief advisor, which carried out the Pharaoh’s orders.
Hieroglyphs (picture symbols) Learned/Borrowed the idea of writing from the Sumerians Hieroglyphs may be found on ancient pyramids used to keep records (religious ceremonies, tax collecting) Papyrus: used the papyrus stem, pressed them together, and made a paper like material The Rosetta Stone allowed people to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Building the Pyramids (145) Write 5 significant facts about building the pyramids For example: Old Kingdom is known as the Age of Pyramids (main detail) The Egyptians developed pyramid technology over a 500 years period (supporting detail) pyramids served as tombs for Pharaoh’s This first known pyramids were step-like pyramids The pyramid shapes is associated with the sun god, Ra Pyramids help us understand the relationship between social order and religion. As god like rulers the Pharaoh’s forced their people to work on the pyramids. The greatest of these pyramids is the Pyramid at Giza each stone weighs 2.5 tones or 5,000 lbs. height is 480 ft.
Preparing for the Afterlife Egyptians believed in an afterlife Believed that souls could live forever or get devoured by a monster (part lion, part crocodile, part hippopotamus) Created mummies, which are dead preserved bodies because they needed bodies in the afterlife Egyptian priest took out all the organs except the heart because the heart was the home of the soul. The Book of the Dead played an important role in the ceremony leading into the afterlife. Egyptians believed their heart would be JUDGED before the god Osiris and other judges.
The Middle Kingdom
Reuniting the Kingdom Egypt fell into civil war and famine in 2181 B.C. Brothers fought against brothers ; fathers against sons 2040 B.C. is the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, which reunited Egypt and brought stability and growth The Middle Kingdom grew in strength and achievements Built forts, temples, pyramids, irrigation canals Crafted jewelry and revived wall paintings and literature
Trade Trade increased during the Middle Kingdom Trade can be very dangerous and risky