2Vocabulary for Chapter 4 Delta – a triangular piece of rich, fertile land usually at the mouth of a river. Formed by soil deposits.Cataract – waterfalls ; rapids,Arid – dry desert ; hot ; little to no precipitation; little to no vegetationPredict – to tell in advanceAfterlife – life after death ; soul live on not your physical bodyDiplomacy – relations between countries; countries discuss political ideas – Positive – Allies //// Negative – EnemyNation-State – a region with a united people and a single governmentDynasty – a series of rulers from the same familyVizier – chief advisor to the Pharaoh ; carried out the Pharaoh’s ordersPyramid – a large stone structure ; tombs for Egyptian rulers, Pharaoh’s, and their servants ; triangular prismMummy – a preserved body ; usually of someone of importance ; body is wrapped in linen ; would take out all the organs except the heart.Civil War – war between two groups with in the same nation or country.Famine – food shortages; a long famine will destroy parts of civilizationsCost-Benefit Analysis – an examination made to decide whether to carry on tradePharaoh - Egyptian king or queen ; means “great house”Reign – time of rule ; how long a ruler was in chargeRural – an area that is not completely developed by humans ; may have a lot of vegetation and not many peopleHieroglyphs – pictures or symbols that stand for sounds, words, or ideasPapyrus – paper like material invented by the Egyptians ;
4Describe the Nile river Describe the Nile river. Include location, flow, length, & nick-name Ancient Egyptians gave the Nile.The Nile river is located east central Africa and flows south to north. The Nile River is 4,160 miles long making it the longest river in the world. The Ancient Egyptians called the Nile the “Giver of Life” because the Nile River flooded and after the flood water receded silt was left behind to create fertile soil, good for farming.
5List ways Egyptians controlled the Nile. Built dams to help fill the canalsBuilt ditches, or canals, to help water their plantsIrrigation systems to help water their crops
6How did the unpredictability of the Nile contribute to the formation of polytheistic beliefs in ancient Egypt?Made up stories that tried to explain what happened. Over time the stories of the floods turned into the formation of the god, Hapi.
7How did the Nile support early civilization in ancient Egypt? The Nile supported civilization in ancient Egypt because it deposited silt along the banks making the soil fertile. Also, it provided fresh water for people and plants. Allowed the develop of trade and help people develop better means of water travel.
8Describe ancient Egypt's major river using the words delta and cataract. Lower Egypt lies at the Nile’s mouth and is made up mainly of the Nile’s delta.One may find more cataracts towards the Nile’s source in Upper Egypt.
9How did Egypt’s location make it an ideal center for trade? Egypt's location made it an ideal center for trade because of the Nile River. Also, because it was the crossroads of three continents. (Asia, Europe, and Africa)
10What agriculture items were some Egyptian towns able to trade? Some agriculture items were wheat, barley, and spices
11Why do you think the Egyptians believed in gods and goddesses? They believed in gods and goddesses because they wanted to make sense of the world around them and explain naturally occurring events. For example flooding and drought.
12What were some of the technologically advances that allowed Egypt to go from small villages to a powerful civilization?The Egyptians developed sails for ship so that they could sail upstream, against the current. Also, irrigations systems so that they may water there crops. Built dams and dikes to help control the yearly flooding. Built pools to save water for when there might be a drought. Built tools to help till the land.
15Egypt UnitesEgypt united about 3,100 B.C. because King Narmer conquered Lower Egypt and built the great city of Memphis, it’s new capital.The capital is where the government leaders are located and work.King Narmer created the world’s first nation-stateKing Narmer ruled the first of 31 different dynasties.The Egyptian Empire lasted more than 3,000 years and is divided into three parts: The Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms
16The Pharaoh's influence / importance The Egyptians considered the Pharaoh as a living god.that meant the pharaoh could do whatever he wanted. (never wrong)that meant the Egyptian people did not have freedoms like we do in the U.S.Acould control the Nile floodingThe Pharaoh employed a vizier, Pharaoh chief advisor, which carried out the Pharaoh’s orders.
17Hieroglyphs (picture symbols) Learned/Borrowed the idea of writing from the SumeriansHieroglyphs may be found on ancient pyramidsused to keep records (religious ceremonies, tax collecting)Papyrus: used the papyrus stem, pressed them together, and made a paper like materialThe Rosetta Stone allowed people to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs.
18Building the Pyramids (145) Write 5 significant facts about building the pyramidsFor example:Old Kingdom is known as the Age of Pyramids (main detail)The Egyptians developed pyramid technology over a 500 years period (supporting detail)pyramids served as tombs for Pharaoh’sThis first known pyramids were step-like pyramidsThe pyramid shapes is associated with the sun god, RaPyramids help us understand the relationship between social order and religion.As god like rulers the Pharaoh’s forced their people to work on the pyramids.The greatest of these pyramids is the Pyramid at Gizaeach stone weighs 2.5 tones or 5,000 lbs.height is 480 ft.
19Preparing for the Afterlife Egyptians believed in an afterlifeBelieved that souls could live forever or get devoured by a monster (part lion, part crocodile, part hippopotamus)Created mummies, which are dead preserved bodies because they needed bodies in the afterlifeEgyptian priest took out all the organs except the heart because the heart was the home of the soul.The Book of the Dead played an important role in the ceremony leading into the afterlife.Egyptians believed their heart would be JUDGED before the god Osiris and other judges.
21Reuniting the KingdomEgypt fell into civil war and famine in B.C.Brothers fought against brothers ; fathers against sons2040 B.C. is the beginning of the Middle Kingdom, which reunited Egypt and brought stability and growthThe Middle Kingdom grew in strength and achievementsBuilt forts, temples, pyramids, irrigation canalsCrafted jewelry and revived wall paintings and literature
22Trade Trade increased during the Middle Kingdom Trade can be very dangerous and risky