Terminology catholic = universal (speaking about the church and epistles written by James, Peter, John and Jude because they were not addressed to specific churches like St. Paul’s epistles) Catholic = Roman Catholic Church
Timeline 451 – Council of Chalcedon 1054 – Great Schism 1517 – Protestant Reformation
“Filioque” Controversy Means “and the Son” Council of Nicea in 325 Council of Constantinople in 381 “Yes, we believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the life-Giver, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets…”
“Filioque” Controversy In A.D. 587, the local council of Toledo (Spain), attempting to combat Arianism by emphasizing The Son’s equality with The Father, added the Filioque clause to the creed. This changed the Creed to: “We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the life-Giver, who proceeds from the Father and the Son, who with the Father and Son is worshiped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets…”
“Filioque” Controversy Leo III, Pope of Rome, protested against any innovation, by having the creed engraved upon two tablets of silver that were hung in St. Peter's Church, and under which was written the following inscription: "I, Leo, have put up these tablets for the love and preservation of the Orthodox faith."
“Filioque” Controversy "But when the Helper comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify of Me." (John 15:26) "But if I depart, I will send Him to you." (John 16:7)
The Primacy of St. Peter But Jesus called them to Himself and said, “You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those who are great exercise authority over them. Yet it shall not be so among you; but whoever desires to become great among you, let him be your servant. And whoever desires to be first among you, let him be your slave— (Matthew 20:25-27)
The Primacy of St. Peter “Now when Peter had come to Antioch, I withstood him to his face, because he was to be blamed; for before certain men came from James, he (St. Peter) would eat with the Gentiles; but when they came, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision and the rest of the Jews also played the hypocrite with him (St. Peter), so that even Barnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy.
The Primacy of St. Peter But when I saw that they were not straightforward about the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter before them all, ‘if you, being a Jew, live in the manner of Gentiles and not as the Jews, why do you compel Gentiles to live as Jews?’” (Gal. 2:11-14)
The Primacy of St. Peter “and consider that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation—as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you,” (2 Peter 3:15)
The Primacy of St. Peter Misinterpreted verses: “Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter and Andrew his brother…” (Matthew 10:2) “I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it. And I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven” (Matthew 16:19)
The Primacy of St. Peter St. Paul is the founder of the Roman Church! “But on the contrary, when they saw that the gospel for the uncircumcised had been committed to me, as the gospel for the circumcised was to Peter (for He who worked effectively in Peter for the apostleship to the circumcised also worked effectively in me toward the Gentiles),” (Gal. 2:7-8)
The Primacy of St. Peter “I have made it my aim to preach the gospel, not where Christ was named, lest I should build on another man’s foundation” (Romans 15:20). John 21
Doctrine of Papal Infallibility Roman Catholic belief: The Pope is, "the Bishop of the Catholic Church," her teacher, the vicar (agent, deputy) of Christ on earth. He is the interpreter of the Christian Tradition and the successor of St. Peter.
Doctrine of Papal Infallibility Speaks for the whole Church Holy Spirit does not permit him to err Therefore, infallible on matters of morals and doctrine
Doctrine of Papal Infallibility Who can say, “I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin”? (Proverbs 20:9) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (Romans 3:23) St. Peter was not infallible!
Purgatory From Latin ‘purgare’, to make clean, to purify) is a place or a condition of temporal punishment for those who died in a state of grace yet are not entirely free from lesser faults or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions.
Purgatory For the Roman Catholic church, there are 3 destinations after a person dies: 1. Heaven 2. Hell 3. Purgatory - Painful temporal punishment (literal fire)
Purgatory 1. Purgatory contradicts the doctrine of Atonement and Redemption: “The blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from all sin… If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.” (1 John 1:7-9)
Purgatory 2. Purgatory contradicts the good news of the Holy Gospel The angel said to the shepherds, “Do not be afraid, for I bring you good tidings of great joy which will be to all people. For there is born to you this day in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.” (Luke 2:10,11)
Purgatory Theory of Indulgences an indulgence is a remission of the temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven.
The “Immaculate” Conception States that St. Mary was exempt from the stain of “original sin.”
The “Immaculate” Conception Surely I was sinful at birth, sinful from the time my mother conceived me. (Psalm 51:5) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, (Romans 3:23) St. Mary herself declared her need of salvation when she said, “my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior.” (Luke 1:47)
Other differences… Development of doctrine Celibacy of priests –No beards or traditional attire –Some monks and nuns have abandoned traditional habit Priest faces people Sacramental life (liturgical and other) Icons vs. statues Other theological differences (original sin, etc)
Conclusion Why does this matter? 1.That you may not be shaken 2.So you can live your faith to the fullest 3.You represent Christ and the Church 4.The body of Christ is “broken”