Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Overview of the History, Tradition, and Development of the American Fire Service."— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1Overview of the History, Tradition, and Development of the American Fire Service
2Introduction This chapter covers: Importance of the mission of the fire servicePurpose of a mission statementMajor events that alter the history of the fire serviceHistory of firefighting and emergency response
3The Mission of the Fire Service Firefighter tasks are the same all over the worldSave lives and property from fire and other emergenciesDifferent fire departments have different approachesMission synonymous with purpose for existenceLegal authority to act in a certain mannerMission statementWritten declaration describing things it intends to do to protect citizenry or customersEvery individual responsible for mission
4Roots in the Past Factors common to all agencies Organizational structureInventory of facilities, apparatus, equipment, methodsPrograms to protect life and propertyCategories of programsFire and emergency operations and fire preventionArson investigationTrainingEmergency medical servicesCommunications and maintenance
5Figure 1-1 Understanding the history of the fire service is like climbing a ladder.
6Ancient BeliefsTurning point in human history: recognition of value of fireInitial challenge: manage fire, prevent it from destroying its userAncient Greeks believed fire was a gift from PrometheusPhoenix myth: fire powerful destroyer and giver of lifeAncient cultures used fire; fire destroyed their homes and consumed their property
7Recorded History Vesta: Roman goddess, protector of hearth fire Hero of Alexandria: created first fire pump22 B.C.: magistrates reported fire outbreaks at night“Familia publica” organized along military linesA.D. 6: “Cohortes Vigilum” permanent fire brigadeHoused in barracks; toured the city at night looking for fires
8Recorded History (cont’d.) Emperor Augustus created seven cohortsSeven military units under command of a tribuneGroups under a prefect (officer of equestrian rank)Each prefect had 500 men, later expanded to 1000Vigiles were a variety of specialistsRoman leaders attempted to regulate buildingAfter fall of Rome, no organized fire brigades for 1000 yearsLegacy of organized firefighting left by Rome
9Figure 1-3 An early European hand-operated pump based on the ancient Roman design.
10Early History and Symbols of the Fire Service Crusades: Order of Saint John of HospitaliersDedicated to treatment of battlefield woundsKnights of MaltaDedicated to saving lives by serving as stretcher-bearersSymbol on uniform and shield determined friend or foeRed cross worn by Order of Saint JohnMaltese cross worn by Knights of Malta
11Figure 1-4 Symbols taken from history: (A) red cross and (B) Maltese cross.
12The Middle Ages Fire continued to destroy European cities Technological advances around the globe not widely available in EuropeFire brigade created in China, not copied in EuropeA.D – 1600: English devised fire regulationsLaws requiring home owners to have ladders, buckets, and barrels of water handyArson a serious crimePunishment: to be burned alive
13The Middle Ages (cont’d.) 1666: Great Fire of LondonCommunity leaders placed emphasis on elimination of conflagrationNext 200 years: creation of almost all basic fire protection institutions of the modern ageOrganization of fire departmentsCreation of fire insurance industryRise of technology to prevent and combat fires
14Early American History Early regulations on prohibition of wooden chimneys, limitations on candle-makingEarly settlements built of wood; emphasis on prevention1637: fire marks used by insurance companiesFires fought by bucket brigadesEarly 1700s Boston designated fire wardens1718: fire societies, era of volunteer firefighter1752: Benjamin Franklin started Philadelphia Contributorship
15Early American History (cont’d.) Fire companies extinguished only the fires of insured buildingsVolunteer firefighters extinguished any fireFire used as a weapon of war1800 – 1850: better protection, more powerful hand pumpers, development of fire helmetArson became common in mid-1800s1853: first full-time, paid firefighting serviceSteam-powered fire engine replaced hand-pumps
16The Civil War Establishment of paramilitary organizational practices Firefighters became soldiers in the Civil WarMost of the country’s experienced firefighters were lost to the warMilitary veterans replaced lost firefightersIntroduced military rank structureCommand and control similar to infantry tacticsColoration and design of uniforms1873: National Association of Fire Engineers
17The Industrial Revolution 1870s through 1900: U.S. moved from farming to industryNational Fire Protection Association (NFPA)Designed and installed automatic sprinklersStandard number 1Basic research in fire engineering started in:Alarm systemsFire hydraulicsAerial apparatusSteam-powered fire pump
18The Beginning of the Twentieth Century International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF)National Board of Fire Underwriters (NBFU)Evaluated level of fire defense in different citiesEmphasis on fire prevention1920s: firefighter education reformFire Chief Ralph ScottFirefighting Bulleting Number 155, series 44, Federal Board of Vocational Education, 1931
19Technology, Transition, and Times of Change Different technology in service simultaneouslyPre-World War I stations had both horse-drawn and motorized fire apparatusSeveral pieces of equipment had to be assembled to fight a fireInternal combustion combined three apparatus into oneAdvances in ability to reach fire, but not in capacity to fight fire once on the scene
20Figure Triple combination engine companies can carry water and hoses and other equipment as well as pump the water. (Owned and photographed by William Killen)
21The Effects of World War II War accelerated need to deal with fireFire still a weapon of warResearch resulted in:Indirect attack methodImproved foams for use in fire serviceImproved personal protective clothingImproved fire nozzle technologyFire service became more paramilitaryOther innovations: improved communications (radio), diesel engines
22Modernization of the Fire Service Modernization is a processInformation half-life: how long it takes for 50% of information to become obsolete1700s about 100 yearsHalf-life has decreased with every generation over last 100 yearsTechnological obsolescence: any given technology is only useful for a period of timeSteamers replaced hand-pumpersDiesel replaced gasoline
23The Fire Service of Today Acceleration of change related to duties of firefighter and agency staffingHazardous materials responseSearch and rescueTerrorism incidents1947: National Conference on America’s fire problem (Harry Truman)Texas City Disaster: first catastrophic hazardous materials event in America
24The Fire Service of Today (cont’d.) 1960s Johnson Foundation “Wingspread Conference”1970s National Commission on Fire Protection and Control “America Burning”United States Fire Administration createdIncident command system (ICS) created
25The Fire Service of Today (cont’d.) Twenty-first century:30,635 fire departments and 1,140,900 firefightersFire department in the U.S. responds to one fire every 20 secondsU.S. has fourth highest death rate among industrial nations: one person dies every two hours in a fire
26Figure 1-17 The fire service has expanded into many areas, including hazardous materials response.
27The Fire Service of Today (cont’d.) The fire service also plays alarge role in EMSFigure Firefighters are often called on to assist EMS crews with patient care.
28Lessons Learned Firefighter’s career is like climbing a ladder We must give due credit to the pastFuture contains difficult challenges and opportunitiesFirefighters must develop skills that did not exist previouslyMotto of the Roman fire brigade “Semper Vigilans”“Always Vigilant”