Presentation on theme: "Michael A. Hitt C. Chet Miller Adrienne Colella"— Presentation transcript:
1Michael A. Hitt C. Chet Miller Adrienne Colella Chapter 11Groups and TeamsMichael A. HittC. Chet MillerAdrienne Colella
2Knowledge ObjectivesDescribe the nature of groups and teams and distinguish among different types of teams.Explain the criteria used to evaluate team effectiveness.Discuss how various aspects of team composition influence team effectiveness.
3Knowledge ObjectivesUnderstand how structural components of teams can influence performance.Explain how various team processes influence team performance.Describe how teams develop over time.Know what organizations can do to encourage and support effective teamwork.Understand the roles of a team leader.
4Groups and Teams Group Team Two or more interdependent individuals who influence one another through social interactionTeamTwo or more people, with work roles that require them to be interdependent, who operate within a larger social system (the organization), performing tasks relevant to the organization’s mission, with consequences that affect others inside and outside the organization, and who have membership that is identifiable to those on the team and those not on the team
5Types of Groups and Teams Formal groupsGroups to which members are formally assignedInformal groupsGroups formed spontaneously by people who share interests, values, or identitiesIdentity groupsGroups based on the social identities of membersVirtual teamsTeams in which members work together but are separated by time, distance, or organizational structure
6Virtual Team Technologies Exhibit 11-1Virtual Team TechnologiesAudio teleconferencingVideo communication systems, which may connect people either room to room or via desktop computersReal-time electronic communication (e.g., chat groups)Different-time electronic communication (e.g., , bulletin boards)Keypad voting systemsGroup project management softwareWireless communication devices (e.g. Blackberries)Adapted from Exhibit 11-1: Virtual Team Technologies
7Effectiveness of Virtual Teams Virtual teams less effective on some dimensionsFewer opportunities exist for informal discussions, hence trust is slower to develop among virtual team membersCommunication channels that are less rich than face-to-face interactionsMore difficult for virtual teams to develop behavioral normsEasier for some members to be free ridersIncreasing effectiveness of virtual teamsMore face-to-face meetingsIf members have a great deal of empowermentWhen implemented properly, virtual teams can increase productivity and save companies millions of dollars
8Types of Groups and Teams Functional teamsDistinguished by the type of work they do and the purpose they serveProduction teamsService teamsManagement teamsProject teamsAdvisory teamsSelf-managing teamsHave considerable autonomy and control over the work they do, and are responsible for completing a whole piece of work or an entire project
9Dimensions of Team Effectiveness Knowledge criteriaTeam members share knowledge and understanding of the team’s task, tools and equipment, and processes, as well as members’ characteristicsAbility of the team as a whole to learn over timeAffective criteriaWhether or not team members have a fulfilling and satisfying team experienceOutcome criteriaQuantity and quality of the team’s output
10Factors Affecting Team Effectiveness Teams create synergy (performance benefits) for several reasonsGreater goal commitmentGreater variety of skills and abilities used for task achievementGreater sharing of knowledgeTeamwork can also lead to poorer performanceProcess lossManaging, coordinating, and developing effective communication within the teamTime and energy members spend maintaining the team
11Factors Affecting Team Effectiveness Team compositionDemographic diversityPersonalitySizeTeam structureTeam member rolesTask rolesNormsTask structureUnitary tasksMaximization tasksSocioemotional rolesOptimization tasks
12Team Size and Performance HighTeam PerformanceTask EnvironmentLowNumber of Team MembersAdapted from Exhibit 11-2: The Relationship Between Team Size and Team Performance
13Team Roles Task Roles Exhibit 11-3 Roles in Teams Initiator/Contributor Suggests new ideas, solutions, or ways to approach the problemInformation Seeker Focuses on getting factsInformation Giver Provides data for decision makingElaborator Gives additional information, such as rephrasing, examplesOpinion Giver Provides opinions, values, and feelingsCoordinator Shows the relevance of various specific ideas to the overall problem to be solvedOrienter Refocuses discussion when the team gets off topicEvaluator/Critic Appraises the quality of the team’s workAdapted from Exhibit 11-3: Roles in Teams
14Team Roles Task Roles Socioemotional Roles Exhibit 11-3 Roles in Teams Energizer Motivates the team when energy faltersProcedural Technician Takes care of operational details, such as technologyRecorder Takes notes and keeps recordsSocioemotional RolesEncourager Provides others with praise, agreement, warmthHarmonizer Settles conflicts among other membersCompromiser Changes his or her position to maintain team harmonyGatekeeper Controls communication process so that everyone gets a chance to participateStandard Setter Discusses the quality of the team processAdapted from Exhibit 11-3: Roles in Teams
15Team Roles Socioemotional Roles Individual Roles Exhibit 11-3 Roles in TeamsSocioemotional RolesObserver Comments on the positive or negative aspects of the team process and calls for changesFollower Accepts others’ ideas and acts as a listenerIndividual RolesAggressor Attacks othersBlocker Unnecessarily opposes the teamDominator Manipulatively asserts authorityEvader Focuses on expressing own feelings and thoughts that are unrelated to the team goalsHelp Seeker Unnecessarily expresses insecuritiesRecognition Seeker Calls unnecessary attention to himself or herselfAdapted from Exhibit 11-3: Roles in Teams
16Factors Affecting Team Effectiveness Team processesCohesionInterpersonal cohesionTask cohesionConflictPersonal conflictsSubstantive conflictsProcedural conflictsSocial facilitationSocial loafingCommunication
17Avoiding Social Loafing Make Individual Contributions VisibleEvaluation system in which everyone’s individual contributions are notedSmaller rather than larger teamsMonitor who oversees everyone’s contributionsFoster Task CohesivenessTeam-level rewards to increase pressureTeamwork training to develop a sense of cohesivenessSelect “team players” for teamworkhigh on agreeablenessHigh on conscientiousness
18Team Development: Stages Model Adjourning (Dissolution)Task completion and termination of rolesPerforming (Work)High task and goal orientationNorming (Structure)Cohesiveness and roles developStorming (Conflict)Disagreement and tension among membersForming (Orientation)Members become familiar with each otherAdjourningPerformingNormingStormingFormingAdapted from Exhibit 11-4: Models of Team Development
19Team Development: Punctuated Equilibrium Model First Stage:Norming ActivitiesFocus on Socioemotional RolesSecond Stage:Performing ActivitiesFocus on Task RolesTask deadline approaches or half-way mark in teams’ tenureAdapted from Exhibit 11-4: Models of Team Development
20Managing for Effective Teams Top Management SupportExplicit vision and strategic plan Serves as the basis for determining desirable team outcomesResults-oriented measurement of Expect all leaders in organization to do same outcomesActively include associates at all All decisions that affect associates also affect levels in decision-making process team performanceMake explicit decision about Tie the decision to business objectives using teamsActively manage and review Problems in teams such as needed resources support systems for teams will be revealed in reviewAdapted from Exhibit 11-3: Roles in Teams
21Managing for Effective Teams Support SystemsTechnology Teams must have access to technology for performing their tasks, including tools and computer software.Information systems Teams often need more (or less) information than they possess. It is crucial to provide a “user friendly” information system.Selection of team members Tailor the staffing process to the type of team. Conduct teamwork analysis to identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for both task work and team work. Consider political issues and who is to do the assessment of potential team members.
22Managing for Effective Teams Support SystemsTraining Team-building training generally focuses on four different types of skills: (1) goal-setting skills; (2) interpersonal skills; (3) problem- solving skills; and (4) role-clarification skills.Rewards If people are to work together effectively as a team, they must be rewarded as a team, in addition to individual rewards. Team reward systems may include profit-sharing plans.Leadership Successful team leaders perform three roles: (1) team liaison; (2) direction setting; and (3) team operational coordinator.