5During the Old Stone Age, the Paleolithic period, the area we know The Nile ValleyDuring the Old Stone Age, thePaleolithic period, the area we knowtoday as the Sahara Desert wasa savanna. The people livingthere were hunters and gatherers.Around 5000 B.C., the climate beganto change and the Sahara began todry. Animals left and plants died.
6People were not able to survive in the harsh desert and began to move intothe Nile River Valley.The Nile River Valley has fertile landalong each side of the river.It is the world’s longest river.The river flows northward for morethan 4,000 miles from its main sourceat Lake Victoria in central Africa.
7The river flows to the Mediterranean Sea where the Nile Delta is formed.The land around the river is higherat the beginning of the river and lowernear the mouth of the river.The ancient people called the higherland in the south “Upper Egypt.”The land in the north, the delta area,was called “Lower Egypt.”
8Lower Egypt was made upmainly of the Nile Delta.The delta forms a huge triangle atthe mouth of the river. Long ago theriver broke up into many branches, buttoday there are only two.High cliffs surrounded the Nile inUpper Egypt. In some places therewas a narrow strip of flat fertile landbetween the cliffs and the river.
9The cliffs are made oflimestone and sandstone.Farther south, in the area once knownas Nubia, the cliffs are made of granite.The river hasn’t been able to cut a clearpath through the hard granite and runsthrough cataracts, a series of rapidsand waterfalls.
10Upper and Lower Egypt Sound Familiar ? Both had rich soil. The land was perfect for growing crops.People were able to settle around theriver and farm instead of hunting andgathering.Sound Familiar ?
11Each year heavy rains in central Africa caused the river to overflow Black LandEach year heavy rains in centralAfrica caused the river to overflowits banks. When the floodwatersdrained away, a rich silt remained.The silt was a natural fertilizer.The dark soil was called “Kemet”meaning “black land.”
12The Ancient Egyptians believed their god Hapi caused the yearly Black LandThe Ancient Egyptians believedtheir god Hapi caused the yearlyflooding.The yearly flooding continued until theAswan Dam was built in 1972.Now the people use pumps,canals, and chemical fertilizerto keep the land suitable for farming.
13The dry, barren lands of the Sahara were known as “Deshuret,” or the Red LandThe dry, barren lands of the Saharawere known as “Deshuret,” or theRed Land.
14The Nile River cuts the eastern part of the Sahara in two.The land on the west side of the riveris called the Western Desert.The land on the east side of the river iscalled the Arabian Desert.
15Farming in the Valley Wealthy landowners controlled almost all of the farmland.Farmers rented and the ownerstook part of the crop as payment.Typical crops included wheat, barley,onions, lettuce, and beans.
16Farmers also raised cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs for food.MeatMilk products – including cheeseBeef – mainly for the wealthyMost could only afford beef forspecial days, so they caught fish orused nets to catch geese or ducks.
17Plants and animals were important for more than just food.Fibers of flax plant – used to spinlinen threadSheep’s wool – woven into clothLeather – continers, sacks, shoesOther plants – sandals, boxes,tabletops
18Think Describe the Nile River. Why was the flooding of the Nile River so important to the Egyptians?What is the difference between the Black Land and the Red Land?How might Egypt have developed if theSahara had not dried and become adesert?
19The Nile was know as the giver of life. Importance of ...The Nile was know as the giver of life.It united the populous of Egypt into one Nation-State.the Nile River
20government and a united group of people. VocabularyNation-stateA region with a singlegovernment and a unitedgroup of people.To be able to tell ahead of time.predictinundationYearly flood in Ancient Egypt.
21afterlifeLife after deathnomeTowns that were capitalsof city-states.
22The Nile River affected all Egyptian activities. Farming Giver and Taker of LifeThe Nile River affected all Egyptianactivities.FarmingReligious BeliefsWays of GoverningThe Nile was called the “Giver ofLife” and helped bring the peopletogether.
23The Nile became a river highway. Ancient Egyptians became expertshipbuilders.The first ships were made of reeds.Later ships were made of woodenplanks,and some were 60 feet long.Boats going downriver (north) coulduse the strong current to travel.Boats going upriver (south) used sailsto catch the steady north wind.
24Concerns About the Nile Light rains upriver - no overflowLand baked in the sun – crops diedToo much rain at river’s source –Wild floodingCrops washed awayPeople and animals drowned
25Common problems helped unite the Ancient Egyptians. Source of InnovationCommon problems helped unite theAncient Egyptians.They were able to predict whenthe yearly floods (inundation) wouldcome.To keep track of this event theycreated a 365 day calendar basedon the sun.
26Inundation – the start of the new year Emergence – land emerged from Three SeasonsThe Egyptians divided the year into three seasons based on the river’s actions.Inundation – the start of the newyearEmergence – land emerged frombeneath the waterHarvest – the time when crops wereready
27Inundation – The land was made new by the rich silt left byfloodwaters.Emergence – Farmers planted usingplows or hoes to createfurrows. They droppedseeds and led cattle orother animals through thefields to push the seedinto the ground.
28Harvest – The final season. In most years farmers would havea large crop.Very little rain fell in Egypt.The hot, dry climate was very harsh.The Ancient Egyptians developedirrigation so they could water their crops.
29During Emergence they trapped water in ponds to use in case of drought. They also built dams and dikes to hold back the river when there was too much flooding. Canals were built to carry excess water back to the river from the fields.
30The Ancient Egyptians believed in many Source of ReligionThe Ancient Egyptians believed in manygods and used stories about themto explain events in nature.They believed the sun was a godthat was born each day and diedeach night.They believed religion was important totheir survival in the Nile River Valley.
31the sun god (most important) Egyptian godsgod of wisdomThothHathorgoddess of loveruled over the deadOrisisgod of the riverHapiAmon-Rethe sun god (most important)
32The Egyptians prayed to their gods and believed in life after death. AfterlifeThe Egyptians prayed to their godsand believed in life after death.A book of prayers called The Bookof the Dead was placed in their tombsTo be used as a guide in the afterlife.
33About 5000 B.C. small farming villages grew up along the Nile. Unified EgyptAbout 5000 B.C. small farming villagesgrew up along the Nile.As populations grew, villages becametowns.Some towns became capitals of city-states called nomes. Leaders of nomescompeted for wealth and power.
34By around 3,500 B.C. the city-states joined together forming two largekingdoms.The kingdoms were known as the “TwoLands.” (Upper Egypt & Lower Egypt)Around 3000 B.C. the Upper EgyptianKings had gained control of LowerEgypt. Uniting Egypt marked theBeginning of the world’s first nation-state,which lasted for 3,000 years.
35No one really knows. Legend says King Menes did. Some experts think Who Really United theTwo Kingdoms?No one really knows. Legend saysKing Menes did. Some experts thinkKing Narmer did because in artworkhe is shown wearing a double crownthat combines the white crownof Upper Egypt and the redcrown of Lower Egypt.
36What did the Egyptians do to control the river? Think TimeHow did the Nile bringpeople together?What did the Egyptians do to controlthe river?How did the Egyptians explain eventsin nature?Why was uniting Egypt important?
38dynasty A series of rulers from the same family. pharaoh king Vocabulary - Lesson 3dynastyA series of rulersfrom the same family.pharaohkingImportant governmentofficial, advisorviziercommandsdecrees
39Paper made from reeds that grew along the Nile. Vocabulary - Lesson 3hieroglyphicsAncient systemOf writing using over700 symbolspapyrusPaper made from reeds thatgrew along the Nile.pyramidA burial place for the deadmummyA preserved body
40Egyptians called their kings “pharaoh.” Egypt's Early PeriodEgyptians called their kings “pharaoh.”The word pharaoh means “great house”and referred to the ruler’s palace.Pharaoh had total authority and wasbelieved to be the son of Re, the sungod.Pharaoh was believed to be a linkbetween man and the gods.
41Why did the Egyptian civilization last so long? The pharaoh was obeyed withoutquestion.The structure of the governmentdidn’t change.Viziers carried out the pharaoh’sdecrees and took care of runningthe government.There were many officials to helpgovern Egypt.
42Officials collected taxes, planned building projects, and enforcedlaws.
43How do we know about the early kings? Egyptians left written records.They developed hieroglyphics, asystem of writing.more than 700 symbolsmost stood for soundssome stood for wholewords or ideas
44Scribes studied for years to learn hieroglyphics.They also learned math.A scribe’s job often involved taxcollecting and record keeping.They wrote on stone and on papyrus.Books were scrolls – rolls of papyrusjoined end-to-end. Some were over100 feet long.Scribes recorded Egyptian history.
45Three Main Divisions of Egyptian History The Old Kingdom2625 to 2130 B.C.Great achievements in buildingIntermediate periodThe Middle Kingdom1980 to 1630 B.C.Changes in government, trade expanded,changes in societyIntermediate period1539 to 1075 B.C.The New KingdomFirst full time army, empire expanded
46Pharaohs began to look outside of Egypt for resources The Old KingdomDynasties 4- 8 ruledPharaohs began to look outside ofEgypt for resourcesColony started in NubiaTraders sent south in Africa to findincense oils, ebony, ivory, & otheritemsTrade in Asia – cedar wood & silver
47Old Kingdom - Age of Pyramids Largest stone buildings in the worldBuilt as a burial place for the deadPyramids built for rulers and otherimportant peopleEgyptians believed they would needtheir bodies in the afterlife.
48Preserving a body took about 70 days Are You My Mummy?Preserving a body took about 70 daysAll internal organs removed except theheartOrgans placed in canopic jarsHeart – believed to be the home of thesoulBody covered with natron –a kind ofsaltNatron absorbed the water in the body
49Body was rubbed with special oils & wrapped in linen clothEverything that a person might needwas placed in the tomb with the body.
50The Egyptians believed the soul appeared before the god Osiris and Where Did My Mummy Go ?The Egyptians believed the soulappeared before the god Osiris anda group of judges.The dead person’s heart wasplaced on one side of ascale and a feather (thefeather of truth) was placedon the other side.
51A balanced scale meant the soul would live forever.An unbalanced scale meant the soulwas heavy with sin.Egyptians believed the sinful soulwould be eaten by an animal thatwas part crocodile, lion, andhippopotamus.
52Imhotep, architect for King Zoser, built The PyramidsImhotep, architect for King Zoser, builtthe first stone tomb – a step pyramid.Egyptians believed that pharaoh went toLive with Amon-Re, their most powerfulGod.The step pyramid may have beenImhotep’s way to help the king “climb thestairway to heaven.”
53The best known pyramids were built at Giza beginning in about 2600 B.C.The largest pyramid was built forPharaoh Khufu.The citizens of Egypt had to pay alabor tax by working for the government.As many as 10,000 farmers worked onthe pyramids during inundation.
54Workers cut and moved more than 2 million stone blocks.Each block weighed about 5,000 pounds.The blocks were probably moved onsleds.The Great Pyramid of Khufu is about480 feet high and covers 13 acres.
55Women – long sleeveless dresses made of linen Egyptian Way of LifeClothing –Women – long sleeveless dressesmade of linenMen – knee-length linen skirts withor without short-sleeved shirtsMen & Women wore jewelry and makeupWealthy often wore fancy wigs
56Houses – made of mud brick & had a shrine for worship of household godsFarmers worked for the governmentduring inundation.Men – artists, carpenters, builders,stonecutters – worked 10 days,off 1 dayThey listened to music, sang, & dancedat religious festivals & parties.
57Women - in charge of household matters, didn’t hold government jobs Some women were craft workers.Most weavers were women.Women could own property and hadfull legal rights.
58Children were seen as gifts from the gods. They played games such as leap frog,tug-of-war, and wrestling.Education –Girls learned weaving & household skills from their mothers.Boys learned their father’s trade.Upper class children learned math,literature, and writing.
59Who controlled the land and people of ancient Egypt? Use Your BrainWho controlled the land and people ofancient Egypt?Why did the Egyptians preserve theirdead?How did the Egyptian government getworkers to build the pyramids?What were the periods between thethree main kingdoms called?