Keystone Exams: English Composition PA Common Core Standard 1.4.9-10.J Create organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence; use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
Claim Analysis Specific Evidence Counterargument Rebuttal Conclusion
What point will your paper try to make about your topic? The production, sale, and possession of assault weapons for private citizens should be banned in the U.S.
Illustrates in detail “ how ” and “ why ” the claim is valid. In the argument on gun control, readers might expect to see: statistics that demonstrate the severity of public access to assault weapons, gun control laws, and the expenses accumulated from these attacks. All of these might be effective kinds of support.
Acknowledge opposing arguments. The counterarguments are the most compelling arguments against the claim. Strict gun control laws won't affect crime rate. Criminals would still own guns.
Point out the flaws to the counterarguments while reinforcing the claim. Low murder rate in Britain, Australia (etc., where strict controls are in force). Any effort to move trend in opposite direction would benefit future generations.
The conclusion reiterates the claim. This must be the final “pitch,” so it is essential that this paragraph be strong. adapted from http://www2.winthrop.edu/wcenter/handoutsandlinks/toulmin.htm
Like a funnel, start with a broad connection to the topic and then hone in on your point (claim).
Hook -- a creative beginning, meant to catch your reader’s interest Background/Set-up/Brief summary -- provides essential background about the literary work and prepares the reader for your major claim/thesis Claim-- a sentence in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader, usually at the end of the paragraph
A creative beginning, meant to catch your reader’s interest. Ways of beginning creatively include the following: A startling fact or bit of information A bit of dialogue between two characters A meaningful quotation (from the work or another source) A universal idea A rich, vivid description of the setting An analogy or metaphor DO NOT ASK A QUESTION!!!
“No pain, no gain.” This is a very popular saying today, especially in sports. While this principle can be applied to many different areas of our life, it is very difficult to see the benefits of emotional pain, such as sadness and loss. “When you look out at this world, what you see will make you very, very sad. This is good. You are seeing clearly. Genuine sadness gives rise, spontaneously, naturally, completely, to the wish – no, the longing – to be of benefit to others.”
“No pain, no gain.” This is a very popular saying today, especially in sports. While this principle can be applied to many different areas of our life, it is very difficult to see the benefits of emotional pain, such as sadness and loss. In Lois Lowry’s The Giver, the society attempts to eliminate all pain and negative emotions in order to create a utopia. Jonas, the protagonist, is the only person who experiences painful memories, and he learns just how important they really are.
“No pain, no gain.” This is a very popular saying today, especially in sports. While this principle can be applied to many different areas of our life, it is very difficult to see the benefits of emotional pain, such as sadness and loss. In Lois Lowry’s The Giver, the society attempts to eliminate all pain and negative emotions in order to create a utopia. Jonas, the protagonist, is the only person who experiences painful memories, and he learns just how important they really are. Sadness and pain are necessary because they give us wisdom, allow us to feel even good emotions deeply, and help us connect with others.
Each paragraph in the body includes a topic sentence that supports the claim integrated concrete details/examples analysis/explanation for evidence/details/examples a concluding sentence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JoBMvxgjW vE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JoBMvxgjW vE
These sentence starters put the writer into commentary-mode: This shows... This is because... This means... This reveals... This illustrates... This highlights the difference between...
Topic Sentence -- a major reason of support for claim statement. Transitional/Lead-in to EVIDENCE #1 Evidence #1 Analysis of evidence #1 Transitional/Lead-in to EVIDENCE #2 Evidence #2 Analysis of evidence #2 Concluding sentence -- summarizes paragraph
Emotional pain is often very difficult, but it is because of this negativity that the positive emotions can be felt so strongly. After Jonas had experienced the war memory, he began to realize the difference between his feelings and those of his Mother. “But now Jonas had experienced real sadness. He had felt grief. He knew that there was no quick comfort for emotions like those“ (132). Jonas knows that his Mother cannot feel the depth of sadness he has felt because her emotions are only on the surface. She has never experienced the real heartache that Jonas has, so she cannot possibly feel joy, either Jonas’s friends also cannot understand his deep sense of caring for them because they have never had the disturbing memories. “He felt such love for Asher and for Fiona. But they could not feel it back, without the memories” (135). Because Asher and Fiona do not understand pain, they cannot have a sense of compassion for Jonas. They cannot truly love him in the way he needs them to because they cannot even imagine what he is going through. In the absence of pain, the people of Jonas’s community do not have the range of feelings that are necessary to experience good or bad things deeply.
Acknowledge opposing arguments. The counterclaim is the most compelling argument against the claim. This should be presented fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. SENTENCE STARTERS: Many people believe that [state the counterclaim here]. It is often thought that [state the counterclaim here]. It would be easy to imagine that [state the counterclaim here]. It might seem as if [state the counterclaim here].
These components equate to four main steps which must be accomplished to have a valid and well- constructed counterclaim: 1) The opposing viewpoint is recognized (counterclaim). 2) Points of support from the opposing argument are briefly presented (1 or 2 counterpoints). 3) A weakness or limitation is recognized, if any exists (analysis). 4) Then, action is taken to restore credibility in your claim/argument (rebuttal).
The rebuttal points out the flaws of the counterarguments while reinforcing the claim. Sentence starters: What this argument fails to consider is... This view seems reasonable at first, but… While this position is popular, it is not logical. Although the core of this claim is valid, it suffers from a flaw in its reasoning.
Many people believe that life would be much easier if no one had to experience the almost unbearable pain associated with such things as the death of a loved one or the betrayal of a trusted friend, and they are almost certainly right. These types of events leave lasting scars on our hearts and can lead to bitterness, depression, and despair. What is also true, however, is that easier is not always better; it is just easier. Easier does not mean that life will be richer and more fully lived because of a lack of struggles. Not having problems does not guarantee feeling happiness.