Presentation on theme: "SCTR 19 – Religions of the Book prepared by Felix Just, s.j. with Brian Moon & Sean Hind Comunicación y Gerencia Prophets."— Presentation transcript:
SCTR 19 – Religions of the Book prepared by Felix Just, s.j. with Brian Moon & Sean Hind Comunicación y Gerencia Prophets
Overview What is a “prophet”? –NOT primarily “predicting” the future! How does each religion view prophets? Who are the most important prophets? What are the prophets’ main messages?
What is a Prophet? Judaism – navi (Hebrew) –Spokesperson for God; speaks to people –Filled with God’s spirit; conveys teachings Christianity – prophetes (Greek) –One who “speaks on behalf of” God –One who conveys God’s messages to others Islam – nabi & rasul (Arabic) –Prophet: assigned a special mission by God –Messenger: records God’s message in books
Prophets in Judaism Named Prophets: –55 total in HB : 48 male, 7 female –Tradition: 600,000 male & 600,000 female Major Prophets? –First & Last in Canon: Moses & Malachi –Crucial in Israelite History: Elijah & Ezra Books of Prophets: –Former Prophets: Joshua; Judges; Samuel; Kings –Latter Prophets: Isaiah; Jeremiah; Ezekiel; The Twelve Can all people be prophets? –Num 11:25-29; Deut 18:9-22
Prophets in Christianity Recognize all Prophets of HB, plus: –Daniel (moved from HB Khetuvim to OT Prophets) –John the Baptist (forerunner of Jesus) –Jesus of Nazareth (but also more than a prophet) Greatest Prophets: –OT era: Moses & Elijah (cf. Mark 9:2-13) –Pre-NT era: John the Baptist (Matt 11:7-15) Leaders of Early Christian Churches: –Apostles, Prophets, Teachers, Healers, etc. –1 Cor 12:28-29 –1 Cor 14:1-40
Prophets in Islam Thousands of Prophets –In all ages, to all nations (10:47; 16:36) –All considered equal (same divine message) Chain of Prophets: –First: Adam (2:30-39) ; Last: Muhammad –Recognize all HB & NT prophets (6:84-90) Roles of Prophets: –Nabi = “prophet”; spoken messages –Rasul = “messenger”; written books
Judaism: Main Prophet: Moses Greatest of All the Prophets: –Leader; Teacher; Law-Giver –Received Torah from God on Mt. Sinai Decalogue: Exod 20; Deut 5 Written Torah: Five Books Oral Torah: Rabbinic Traditions (Mishnah/Talmud) –No great than Moses: Deut 34:9-12 Other Major Prophets: –Isaiah (“called” in 6:1-10; “Spirit” in 61:1-11) –Jeremiah (“called” in 1:4-10); Elijah; etc.
Question 1 Acc. to the assigned HB readings and the Judaism 101 web page, what kind of prophet(s) do Jews expect in the future? Another Prophet Like Moses? –Deut 18:15-18 Return of the Prophet Elijah? –Malachi 3:23
Main Prophet of Christianity : Jesus Christ/Messiah; Son of God (Mark 1:1) –Son of Man; Son of David; King of the Jews –Many other Christological Titles, including: Great Prophet –Mark 6:14-15; 8:27-28 –Luke 4:4-30 (quoting Isaiah 61)
Question 2 How do the NT texts selected for today compare Jesus with Moses, Elijah, Isaiah, and other prophets of ancient Israel? Jesus is More than a Prophet: –John 1:1-18 Word made flesh; only-begotten Son –Hebrews 1:1-5; 3:1-19 Superior to Angels; greater than Moses
Main Prophet of Islam: Muhammad Last in the long Chain of Prophets –Qur’an 33:40 –but not divine, not different from other humans Final Messenger –through whom the Qur’an was revealed Role Model for Believers –Hadith: Sayings of Muhammad –Sunna: Traditions of Muhammad
Question 3 Based on the selected readings from the Qur'an, what do Muslims believe about Moses and about Jesus? Sample of Many Texts: –Surah 3:42-60 –Surah 4: –Surah 5:
Other Views of Moses In Christianity –Great prophet; law-giver; leader of Israelites –Jesus is like a “new Moses” (esp. in Matthew) –Yet Jesus is greater (John; Hebrews; etc.) In Islam –Highly esteemed as prophet & messenger –Mentioned very often in all the Qur’an
Other Views of Jesus In Judaism –Teacher; healer; activist; reformer; rebel? –Prophet? or False Prophet? –Not the Messiah! Not the Son of God! In Islam –A great prophet; but still human, not divine –Miraculous birth; but no crucifixion! –Surahs 3:42-60; 4:
Other Views of Muhammad In Judaism –Not a prophet –Jews are still waiting for the Messiah In Christianity –Not a prophet –No new/more revelation needed after Jesus
Main Message of the Prophets Similarities –There is only One God –Don’t make or worship idols –Social justice; love; forgiveness; peace Differences –Moses: Torah (Oral & Written) applied in daily life –Jesus: Love God, neighbors, yourself, enemies –Muhammad: Total submission to God
Summary Definition of prophet/prophecy? How the three religions view prophets: –Role of Prophets? –Other Important Figures? Major prophets in the three religions? –Moses; Jesus; Muhammad; others? Main message of the prophets –Similarities? –Differences?