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Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table 1.Students can describe the parts of an atom 2.Students can read the element information on the periodic table.

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Presentation on theme: "Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table 1.Students can describe the parts of an atom 2.Students can read the element information on the periodic table."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table 1.Students can describe the parts of an atom 2.Students can read the element information on the periodic table 3.Students can describe the reactivity of alkali metals 4.Students can describe how various types of bonding in different categories of materials effects their behavior

2 Atoms smallest particle of an element that has the properties of the element smallest particle of an element that has the properties of the element made of 3 basic subatomic particles made of 3 basic subatomic particles there are now many more subatomic particles – theoretical physics there are now many more subatomic particles – theoretical physics

3 Subatomic Particles NameProtons (p or +) Neutrons (n) Electrons (e - ) Charge Location Mass “Job” Number

4 Subatomic Particles Name Protons (p or +)Neutrons (n)Electrons (e - ) Charge+1No charge Location Mass “Job” Number

5 Subatomic Particles Name Protons (p or +)Neutrons (n)Electrons (e - ) Charge+1No charge Locationin nucleus in shells around nucleus Mass “Job” Number

6 nucleus nucleus small, dense center of atom small, dense center of atom contains almost all the mass of the atom contains almost all the mass of the atom contains protons and neutrons contains protons and neutrons

7 Subatomic Particles Name Protons (p or +)Neutrons (n)Electrons (e - ) Charge+1No charge Locationin nucleus in shells around nucleus Mass ≈ 1 amu ≈ 2000x smaller “Job” Number

8 Atomic Mass Unit (amu) Atomic Mass Unit (amu) metric unit to measure the mass of VERY small objects (particles) metric unit to measure the mass of VERY small objects (particles) a unit to measure the mass of atoms a unit to measure the mass of atoms

9 Subatomic Particles Name Protons (p or +)Neutrons (n)Electrons (e - ) Charge+1No charge Locationin nucleus in shells around nucleus Mass ≈ 1 amu ≈ 2000 x smaller “Job”Determines identity of element Supplies proper mass to hold nucleus together Determines bonding/ how it reacts Number

10 Subatomic Particles Name Protons (p or +)Neutrons (n)Electrons (e - ) Charge+1No charge Locationin nucleus in shells around nucleus Mass ≈ 1 amu ≈ 2000 x smaller “Job”Determines identity of element Supplies proper mass to hold nucleus together Determines bonding/ how it reacts NumberAtomic #Atomic mass – atomic # = # of neutrons Same as # of protons

11 atomic number atomic number whole number on periodic table whole number on periodic table number of protons in an atom of an element number of protons in an atom of an element does NOT vary in an element – the same in all atoms of an element does NOT vary in an element – the same in all atoms of an element # of protons

12 # of electrons atoms are neutral atoms are neutral (+) = (-) (+) = (-) # of protons = # of electrons # of protons = # of electrons p = e - p = e -

13 atomic mass (weight) atomic mass (weight) decimal number on the periodic table – it is for all the atoms of the element decimal number on the periodic table – it is for all the atoms of the element number of protons plus the number of neutrons – it’s an average on the table number of protons plus the number of neutrons – it’s an average on the table weighted average of all the isotopes of that element weighted average of all the isotopes of that element the mass of one atom is a whole number the mass of one atom is a whole number

14 Isotopes Isotopes iso = same iso = same atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons have different atomic masses but the same atomic number have different atomic masses but the same atomic number some are stable, some are radioactive (carbon-12 and carbon-14) some are stable, some are radioactive (carbon-12 and carbon-14)

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16 # of neutrons atomic massn + p - atomic # - p - atomic # - p # of neutrons n

17 Free Write What do you know about: What do you know about: atoms atoms the periodic table the periodic table

18 Periodic Table How is the periodic table arranged? How is the periodic table arranged? arranged by increasing atomic number arranged by increasing atomic number rows rows called periods called periods tells number of electron shells tells number of electron shells number them down the left side of the periodic table – 1 through 7 number them down the left side of the periodic table – 1 through 7

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20 Periodic Table columns columns called families or groups called families or groups elements in same column have similar chemical properties elements in same column have similar chemical properties same number of valence electrons same number of valence electrons

21 Periodic Table valence electrons valence electrons electrons in outermost shell electrons in outermost shell involved in bonding involved in bonding number the columns on your periodic table with the correct number of valence electrons number the columns on your periodic table with the correct number of valence electrons

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23 Stability stable number of electrons = 8 in the outermost shell stable number of electrons = 8 in the outermost shell 8 valence e - 8 valence e - octet rule octet rule exception – 1st shell is stable with 2 e - exception – 1st shell is stable with 2 e -

24 Metals 1 to 3 valence electrons 1 to 3 valence electrons givers of electrons givers of electrons lose electrons lose electrons make (+) ions make (+) ions left side of periodic table left side of periodic table

25 Nonmetals 5 to 8 valence electrons 5 to 8 valence electrons takers of electrons takers of electrons gain electrons gain electrons make (-) ions make (-) ions right side of periodic table right side of periodic table

26 Ion atom with a charge atom with a charge atom has gained or lost electrons atom has gained or lost electrons gained e - = (-) charge gained e - = (-) charge lost e - = (+) charge lost e - = (+) charge (+) ion = cation (+) ion = cation (-) ion = anion (-) ion = anion

27 Column 8 Noble gases Noble gases very stable very stable don’t want to form compounds or bonds don’t want to form compounds or bonds

28 Column 7 halogens halogens want one more electron want one more electron most reactive nonmetals most reactive nonmetals can take an electron from almost anyone can take an electron from almost anyone

29 Column 1 alkali metals alkali metals want to give away one electron want to give away one electron most reactive metals most reactive metals

30 Alkali metals on the show brainiac Alkali metals on the show brainiac

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32 Bonding atoms achieve a stable number of electrons (ionic and covalent) atoms achieve a stable number of electrons (ionic and covalent) involves valence (outer) electrons involves valence (outer) electrons make compounds and/or solids make compounds and/or solids

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34 Type of bonding metallicioniccovalentintermolecular forces Type of elements used Givers &/or takers of electrons Description Type of material formed Strength of bond Properties Produced

35 Type of bondingmetallicioniccovalentintermolecular forces Type of elements used Between metals Metals and nonmetals Between nonmetals Between molecules Givers &/or takers of electrons Description Type of material formed Strength of bond Properties Produced

36 Type of bondingmetallicioniccovalentintermolecular forces Type of elements used Between metalsMetals and nonmetals Between nonmetalsBetween molecules Givers &/or takers of e lectrons Between givers Between givers and takers Between takers Description Type of material formed Strength of bond Properties Produced

37 Type of bondingmetallicioniccovalentintermolecular forces Type of elements used Between metalsMetals and nonmetals Between nonmetalsBetween molecules Givers &/or takers of electrons Between giversBetween givers and takers Between takers DescriptionValence e - roam freely between many atoms (delocalized). Sea of e - surrounding (+) kernels. Transfer e - Makes (+) and (-) ions that are attracted to each other. Share e - Forms discrete molecules. Hold covalently bonded molecules together as a solid. Type of material formed Strength of bond Properties Produced

38 Type of bondingmetallicioniccovalentintermolecular forces Type of elements used Between metalsMetals and nonmetals Between nonmetalsBetween molecules Givers &/or takers of electrons Between giversBetween givers and takers Between takers DescriptionValence e - roam freely between many atoms (delocalized). Sea of e - surrounding (+) kernels. Transfer e - Makes (+) and (-) ions that are attracted to each other. Share e - Forms discrete molecules. Hold covalently bonded molecules together as a solid. Type of material formed Solid metallic elements and alloys Ceramics and glass Polymers and some ceramics/ glasses Helps form solid polymers Strength of bond Properties Produced

39 Type of bondingmetallicioniccovalentintermolecular forces Type of elements used Between metalsMetals and nonmetals Between nonmetalsBetween molecules Givers &/or takers of electrons Between giversBetween givers and takers Between takers DescriptionValence e - roam freely between many atoms (delocalized). Sea of e - surrounding (+) kernels. Transfer e - Makes (+) and (-) ions that are attracted to each other. Share e - Forms discrete molecules. Hold covalently bonded molecules together as a solid. Type of material formed Solid metallic elements and alloys Ceramics and glassPolymers and some ceramics/glasses Helps form solid polymers Strength of bond Relatively strong Very strong Weak Properties Produced

40 Type of bondingmetallicioniccovalentintermolecular forces Type of elements used Between metalsMetals and nonmetalsBetween nonmetals Between molecules Givers &/or takers of electrons Between giversBetween givers and takers Between takers DescriptionValence e - roam freely between many atoms (delocalized). Sea of e - surrounding (+) kernels. Transfer e - Makes (+) and (-) ions that are attracted to each other. Share e - Forms discrete molecules. Hold covalently bonded molecules together as a solid. Type of material formed Solid metallic elements and alloys Ceramics and glassPolymers and some ceramics/glasses Helps form solid polymers Strength of bondRelatively strongVery strong Weak Properties Produced Good conductors, workable, corrode easily, generally high melt temps but variable Brittle, high melt temps, nonconductors as solids, don’t corrode Insulators, don’t corrode Help determine a lot of properties of covalent compounds (polymers). Soft and plastic

41 Metallic Bonding All pure metals have metallic bonding and therefore exist as metallic structures. Metallic bonding consists of a regular arrangement of positive ion cores of the metals surrounded by a mobile delocalized sea of electrons.

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43 Metallic Bonding Each atom donates its valence electrons to the whole Each atom donates its valence electrons to the whole Atom therefore becomes a cation (here called an ion core) Atom therefore becomes a cation (here called an ion core) Donated electrons form an electron cloud surrounding all the ion cores Donated electrons form an electron cloud surrounding all the ion cores Electron cloud binds all the ion cores together by coulombic forces Electron cloud binds all the ion cores together by coulombic forces

44 Metallic Bonding Valence electrons are delocalized: Valence electrons are delocalized: Shared by all atoms in the material Shared by all atoms in the material Electrons are free to drift throughout the material Electrons are free to drift throughout the material Provides unique properties only found in metals Provides unique properties only found in metals shiny metallic luster shiny metallic luster good electrical and thermal conductivity good electrical and thermal conductivity many others... many others...

45 Metallic Bonds : Mellow dogs with plenty of bones to go around These bonds are best imagined as a room full of puppies who have plenty of bones to go around and are not possessive of any one particular bone. This allows the electrons to move through the substance with little restriction. The model is often described as the "kernels of atoms in a sea of electrons."

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47 IonicCovalentMetallicIntermolecular Bond strengthstrongvery strong moderate and variable weak Hardness moderate to high very hard, brittle low to moderate; ductile, malleable soft and plastic Electrical conductivity conducts by ion transport only when dissociated insulator in solid and liquid good conductors; by electron transport insulators in solid and liquid states Melting point moderate to high lowgenerally highlow Solubility soluble in polar solvents very low solubilities insoluble soluble in organic solvents Examplesmost minerals diamond, oxygen, organic molecules Cu, Ag, Au, other metals ice, organic solids (crystals)

48 Ionic Bonding (ceramics and polymers)

49 Ionic Bonds : One big greedy thief dog! Ionic bonding can be best imagined as one big greedy dog stealing the other dog's bone. If the bone represents the electron that is up for grabs, then when the big dog gains an electron he becomes negatively charged and the little dog who lost the electron becomes positively charged. The two ions (that's where the name ionic comes from) are attracted very strongly to each other as a result of the opposite charges.

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51 Sodium lets Chlorine use its valance electron

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54 Covalent Bonding (Ceramics)

55 Covalent Bonds : Dogs of equal strength. Covalent bonds can be thought of as two or more dogs with equal attraction to the bones. Since the dogs (atoms) are identical, then the dogs share the pairs of available bones evenly. Since one dog does not have more of the bone than the other dog, the charge is evenly distributed among both dogs. The molecule is not "polar" meaning one side does not have more charge than the other.

56 Polar Covalent Bonds : Unevenly matched but willing to share. These bonds can be thought of as two or more dogs that have different desire for bones. The bigger dog has more strength to possess a larger portion of the bones. Sharing still takes place but is an uneven sharing. In the case of the atoms, the electrons spend more time on the end of the molecule near the atom with the greater electronegativity (desire for the electron) making it seem more negative and the other end of the molecule seem more positive.

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62 Covalent Network Solid only covalent bonds only covalent bonds extremely large molecules or networks extremely large molecules or networks usually have at least one element from carbon family usually have at least one element from carbon family very strong and hard very strong and hard very high melt T° very high melt T° some glass and ceramics, diamond some glass and ceramics, diamond polymers are usually not because they make linear chains instead of networks polymers are usually not because they make linear chains instead of networks

63 http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/ chemistry/energy/bsp1_rev.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/ chemistry/energy/bsp1_rev.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/ chemistry/energy/bsp1_rev.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/ chemistry/energy/bsp1_rev.shtml Read the 4 slides and take the quiz at the end Read the 4 slides and take the quiz at the end Patterns in the periodic table Patterns in the periodic table http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str13.htm http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str13.htm http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str13.htm Ionic bonding Electron numbers ions and aions Ionic bonding Electron numbers ions and aions http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str14.htm http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str14.htm http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str14.htm Covalent bonding Covalent bonding http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str7.htm http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str7.htm http://www.ewart.org.uk/science/structures/str7.htm Structure of the atom Structure of the atom


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