6 TI definition of corruption ‘Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain’
7 Transparency International’s approach Zero tolerance any bribery embeds corruption in the system Corruption has victims Independent Research-based Change in emphasis on individual cases
8 TI achievements Public policy and debate Putting corruption on the agenda Keeping it there Frameworks/legislation UK Bribery Act Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative UNCAC and other conventions Impact on the ground Advocacy & Legal Advisory centres 100,000 contacts, 3,000 cases
9 Personal reflections Great integrity – funding, partners [eg FIFA] Dominated by less developed countries Cultural perspectives Danger Prestige and access Collaboration and lack of NGO competition
15 Is it just overseas? A leaked Metropolitan Police investigation in 2006 estimated that there are around 1000 corrupt prison officers currently working, with a further 600 officers being involved in an inappropriate relationship with a prisoner. In 2009 alone, there were 10,090 prosecutions under the 2006 Fraud Act, with no indication as to how many may have included some elements of corruption. It is currently estimated that 38,000 people are involved in organised crime in the UK, and such activities cost the economy anywhere between £20 and £30 billion per year. A 2006 survey for the construction sector found that 41% of respondents had personally been offered a bribe at least once in their career.
16 Is corruption always illegal? Sometime illegal; sometimes unethical but legal: MPs’ expenses Revolving door Political party donations Unregulated political lobbying
23 TRAC report Survey of 500 companies globally Data to mid-2007, publicly-available data Rated as 1-5 stars 7 companies scored 5 stars 151 companies scored 1 star Scored out of 50 26 companies scored 35 or more 108 companies scored less than 3 out of 50 75 companies scored 0 out of 50
28 What is civil society? NGOs Charities Church groups Unions Ordinary citizens Social networks Bloggers Other
29 Roles for civil society Research Investigation Advocacy Awareness raising Organising Legal action
30 Some characteristics of civil society Committed to a cause Sometimes controversial Relatively small organisations International recognition Occasional extraordinary successes At times very powerful
31 Some limitations of civil society Under-resourced No direct power Enthusiastic but unprofessional? Subject to intimidation and oppression Over-dependence on media? Can be ‘captured’ Foreign interference? What is the mandate – and who does it represent?