What are footnotes? O Footnotes are the primary way to cite sources in Turabian formatting. O They appear at the bottom of the page. 1 O Papers with footnotes have a bibliography page at the end which includes each source used in the paper. 2 1 Footnotes are located here. 2 Daniel Miller, Standard Footnotes (Dallas: DBU Press, 2011), 45.
Basic footnote formatting: O Footnotes go at the bottom of the page. O There should be a line separating the text from the footnotes (Microsoft Word does this automatically). O Footnotes should be in either 10pt or 12pt font. O Ensure they are in the same font as the text—this will likely be either Times New Roman or Arial.
Footnote formatting: O The first time a source is used, list all the publication information within the footnote (this looks a lot like a bibliography entry). O In each subsequent entry that uses the same source, include the author’s last name, a comma, and the page number. 3 Daniel Miller, Standard Footnotes (Dallas: DBU Press, 2011), Miller, 88.
Footnote formatting: O In the subsequent entries, if two or more works from the same author are used in the paper, include a shortened version of the title. O If two consecutive references are from the same source, use “Ibid.” This means “in the same place.” Include the page number if it is from the same source but a different page. 5 Miller, Another Reference, Ibid. 7 Ibid., 74.
How to create footnotes in Microsoft Word: 1. Place the cursor after a quote or paraphrase and left click. 2. Select “References” in the menu at the top. 3. Select “Insert Footnote.” It should be a large button, close to the left side. 4. Microsoft Word will automatically format the page and choose the correct number. 5. Type the footnote!
Information to include (if available): O Author’s name O Article or chapter title O Book title, journal title, website title, etc. O Volume, issue, edition, etc. O Editor’s name O Place of publication O Publishing company O Copyright date O Page number
Some examples: O Book with one author: O Book with two authors: O A multivolume work with editor/compiler as author: 1 James Smith, My Book (Ennis, TX: Some Press, 2004), Bert Tall and Ernie Short, Streets of Home (Boston: Big Bird Publications, 1995), Bilbo Baggins, ed., The Red Book of Westmarch (London: Tolkien Press, 19), 2:1439.
Some examples: O Article from a scholarly journal: O Electronic journal article: 1 Novak, Ivana, “Keeping up with Bicarbonate,” The Journal of Physiology 528, no. 2 (October 20, 2000), under “Medications,” (accessed October 24, 2000). 1 Max Deluch “Mind from Matter,” American Scholar 47, no. 7 (Spring 1978): 343.
Basic bibliography formatting: O Place a page titled “Bibliography” at the end of the paper. O This includes an alphabetized list of each source consulted for the paper. O Single-space each entry. O Place a blank line between each entry. O Each entry should have a hanging indent.
Differences between footnotes and bibliography entries: O Footnotes format the author’s name first name last name. Bibliography entries format the author’s name last name, first name. O Footnotes indent the first line, and any subsequent lines are flush left. Bibliography entries have a hanging indent. O Footnotes use commas and parentheses to separate elements in the entry. Bibliography entries use periods.
Differences between footnotes and bibliography entries: O Footnotes include specific page numbers where the information was found. Bibliography entries only include page numbers if they indicate the pages of a complete article or chapter. O Footnotes are numbered and ordered according to where the information is introduced in the text. Bibliography entries are always alphabetized and unnumbered.
Please see “Turabian Packet: Footnotes and Endnotes” for more information. This can be found online at or at the Writing Center in Collins Call us at if you have any questions!