2What are footnotes?Footnotes are the primary way to cite sources in Turabian formatting.They appear at the bottom of the page.1Papers with footnotes have a bibliography page at the end which includes each source used in the paper.21Footnotes are located here.2Daniel Miller, Standard Footnotes (Dallas: DBU Press, 2011), 45.
3Basic footnote formatting: Footnotes go at the bottom of the page.There should be a line separating the text from the footnotes (Microsoft Word does this automatically).Footnotes should be in either 10pt or 12pt font.Ensure they are in the same font as the text—this will likely be either Times New Roman or Arial.
4Footnote formatting:The first time a source is used, list all the publication information within the footnote (this looks a lot like a bibliography entry).In each subsequent entry that uses the same source, include the author’s last name, a comma, and the page number.3Daniel Miller, Standard Footnotes (Dallas: DBU Press, 2011), 45.4Miller, 88.
5Footnote formatting:In the subsequent entries, if two or more works from the same author are used in the paper, include a shortened version of the title.If two consecutive references are from the same source, use “Ibid.” This means “in the same place.” Include the page number if it is from the same source but a different page.5Miller, Another Reference, 23.6Ibid.7Ibid., 74.
6How to create footnotes in Microsoft Word: Place the cursor after a quote or paraphrase and left click.Select “References” in the menu at the top.Select “Insert Footnote.” It should be a large button, close to the left side.Microsoft Word will automatically format the page and choose the correct number.Type the footnote!
7Information to include (if available): Author’s nameArticle or chapter titleBook title, journal title, website title, etc.Volume, issue, edition, etc.Editor’s namePlace of publicationPublishing companyCopyright datePage number
8Some examples: Book with one author: Book with two authors: A multivolume work with editor/compiler as author:1James Smith, My Book (Ennis, TX: Some Press, 2004), 38.1Bert Tall and Ernie Short, Streets of Home (Boston: Big Bird Publications, 1995), 24.1Bilbo Baggins, ed., The Red Book of Westmarch (London: Tolkien Press, 19), 2:1439.
9Some examples: Article from a scholarly journal: Electronic journal article:1Max Deluch “Mind from Matter,” American Scholar 47, no. 7 (Spring 1978): 343.1Novak, Ivana, “Keeping up with Bicarbonate,” The Journal of Physiology 528, no. 2 (October 20, 2000), under “Medications,” (accessed October 24, 2000).
10Basic bibliography formatting: Place a page titled “Bibliography” at the end of the paper.This includes an alphabetized list of each source consulted for the paper.Single-space each entry.Place a blank line between each entry.Each entry should have a hanging indent.
11Differences between footnotes and bibliography entries: Footnotes format the author’s name first name last name. Bibliography entries format the author’s name last name, first name.Footnotes indent the first line, and any subsequent lines are flush left. Bibliography entries have a hanging indent.Footnotes use commas and parentheses to separate elements in the entry. Bibliography entries use periods.
12Differences between footnotes and bibliography entries: Footnotes include specific page numbers where the information was found. Bibliography entries only include page numbers if they indicate the pages of a complete article or chapter.Footnotes are numbered and ordered according to where the information is introduced in the text. Bibliography entries are always alphabetized and unnumbered.
13Please see “Turabian Packet: Footnotes and Endnotes” for more information. This can be found online at or at the Writing Center in Collins 001. Call us at if you have any questions!