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Obstetric Haemorrhage and the NASG ©Suellen Miller 2013
Obstetric Haemorrhage Definition: obstetric haemorrhage is heavy bleeding during pregnancy, labor or the postpartum Bleeding in excess of 500mL or in any amount that causes changes in vital signs – Blood Pressure decreases – Pulse increases Woman may go into hypovolaemic shock ©Suellen Miller 2013
Obstetric Haemorrhage: Causes ©Suellen Miller 2013 WHEN IN PREGNANCY BLEEDING OCCURS HAEMORRHAGE DIAGNOSIS OR ETIOLOGY Antepartum Haemorrhage Placenta Previa Abruption Ruptured uterus Postpartum Haemorrhage Uterine atony Retained placenta/tissue Lacerations Placenta accreta Early Pregnancy Haemorrhage Ectopic pregnancy Molar pregnancy Complications of abortion Retained placenta/tissue Any of the above etiologies can contribute to the woman developing DIC, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
Signs of Hypovolaemic Shock A woman in shock may show one or more of the following signs: Increased pulse/tachycardia Decreased blood pressure/hypotension Pallor (pale skin) Sweating/diaphoresis Clamminess Cold extremities Confusion or agitation Loss of consciousness May or may not have heavy external bleeding ©Suellen Miller 2013
Obstetric Haemorrhage and the NASG The NASG helps in the management of patients with obstetric haemorrhage and hypovolaemic shock. ©Suellen Miller 2013
The NASG ©Suellen Miller 2013 NASG FOLDEDNASG OPENED
NASG’s Unique Role in Obstetric Haemorrhage and Hypovolaemic Shock Used with haemorrhage therapies, uterotonics, massage, vaginal procedures, even surgeries Does not compete with other approaches: Not an either/or situation Buys time to access definitive treatment A technology that can be used when patient does not respond to uterotonics Only technology that reverses shock, until blood transfusions are available ©Suellen Miller 2013
Mechanism of Action ©Suellen Miller 2013
Effects of the NASG The NASG provides efficient, simple, and safe circumferential counter pressure Reduces haemorrhage in lower body However, the NASG is not a tourniquet, it does not completely cut off blood supply to lower limbs Decreases arterial perfusion pressure to uterus, comparable to ligation of the internal iliac arteries Overcomes pressure in capillary and venous system (15-25 mmHg) Reduces transmural pressure, vessel radius, and blood flow ©Suellen Miller 2013
Use of the NASG Stabilizes patient while evaluating, transporting, or preparing for definitive surgical treatment Can be safely and comfortably used up to 48 hours May help avoid unnecessary emergency hysterectomy for intractable uterine atony May decrease need for or number of blood transfusions ©Suellen Miller 2013
What the NASG does NOT do: The NASG does not avert the necessity for: – Evaluation to identify causes of shock – Uterotonics if the patient has uterine atony – Fluid and blood replacement – Therapy for coagulopathy – Standard care for treatment of hypovolaemic shock ©Suellen Miller 2013
Contraindication Do not use the NASG with: A viable fetus (unless there is no other way to save the mother’s life and both mother and fetus will die) Bleeding above the diaphragm Open thoracic wounds ©Suellen Miller 2013
When to Apply the NASG When a woman shows signs of hypovolaemic shock from obstetric haemorrhage Applying the NASG before inserting an IV may improve access to veins Use the NASG along with standard treatment protocols (the NASG does not replace them) ©Suellen Miller 2013
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