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Miller Pipeline Corporation Confined Space Training.

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Presentation on theme: "Miller Pipeline Corporation Confined Space Training."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Miller Pipeline Corporation Confined Space Training

3 Section 1 The Basics

4 Definitions  Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) The maximum amount of a substance that a person can be exposed to without it becoming hazardous to health. The maximum amount of a substance that a person can be exposed to without it becoming hazardous to health.  Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) The lowest concentration of a substance that will produce a flash, fire or explosion if an ignition source introduced. The lowest concentration of a substance that will produce a flash, fire or explosion if an ignition source introduced.  Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) The highest concentration of a substance that will produce a flash, fire or explosion if an ignition source introduced. The highest concentration of a substance that will produce a flash, fire or explosion if an ignition source introduced. Below LEL (Too Lean) Above UEL (Too Rich) Between LEL-UEL Just Right

5 “Confined Space”  A “Confined Space” is any space that meets all of the following criteria: Large enough for person to enter and perform work. Large enough for person to enter and perform work. Limited or restricted means for entry or exit. Limited or restricted means for entry or exit. Not designed for continuous human occupancy. Not designed for continuous human occupancy. Miller Pipeline’s Typical Confined Space

6 “Non-Permit” Confined Space  A confined space that does not have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing death or serious physical harm.

7 “Permit Required” Confined Space  A confined space that has the potential to contain one of more of the following characteristics: “Hazardous atmosphere” “Hazardous atmosphere” Engulfment hazard Engulfment hazard Configuration hazard Configuration hazard Any other serious safety or health hazard Any other serious safety or health hazard Hazardous EnergyHazardous Energy Moving PartsMoving Parts Fluid LevelFluid Level Because of this Miller Pipeline considers all manholes “permit required” confined spaces.

8 “Hazardous Atmosphere” OOOOxygen level not adequate FFFFlammables > 10% of the LEL TTTToxins > PEL CCCCombustible dust > 10% of the LEL Miller Pipeline’s Typical Confined Space Hazards

9 Oxygen Potential Effects of Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres Oxygen Content (% by Volume) Effects and Symptoms (At Atmospheric Pressure) 19.5%Minimum permissible oxygen level 15-19%Decreased ability to work strenuously. May impair coordination and may induce early symptoms in persons with coronary, pulmonary, or circulatory problems %Respiration increases in exertion, pulse up, impaired coordination, perception, judgment %Respiration further increases in rate and depth, poor judgment, lips blue. 8-10%Mental failure, fainting, unconsciousness, ashen face, blueness of lips, nausea, and vomiting. 6-8%8 minutes, 100% fatal; 6 minutes, 50% fatal; 4-5 minutes, recovery with treatment. 4-6%Coma in 40 seconds, convulsions, respiration ceases, death.  “Room air” is 20.9%  Less than 19.5% is not adequate for breathing  More than 23.5% creates combustible atmosphere

10 MATERIAL LELUELPELDENSITY % Volume (PPM)(Air=1.0) METHANE5%15%Asphyxiate0.6 Flammables Methane (CH 4 )  Explosive at low volume  Reduces Oxygen  *Lighter than air (rises)

11 Toxins Effects of Exposure  Acute (Detected Now) Headache Headache Dizziness Dizziness Nausea Nausea  Chronic (Detected Later) Cancer Cancer Organ Damage Organ Damage Infertility Infertility

12 Toxins Routes of Entry  Inhalation (breathing)  Ingestion (swallowing)  Injection (blood stream)  Absorption (eyes or skin) Main route for CO and H 2 S

13 Toxins MATERIAL L.E.L.U.E.L.PELDENSITY % Volume (PPM)(Air=1.0) CARBON MONOXIDE12.5%74%35.97 Carbon Monoxide (CO)  Explosive at medium volume  Toxic at medium volume  *Same weight as air (hovers)  Odorless, colorless, and non-irritating (silent killer) PPMEffect 200Slight headache, discomfort within 3 hours 400Slight headaches within 1-2 hours, becoming life threatening after three hours. 800Dizziness, nausea, and convulsions within 45 minutes. Unconsciousness within two hours. Death within 2-3 hours. 1,600Headache, dizziness, and nausea within 20 minutes. Death within one hour. 3,200Headache, dizziness, and nausea within minutes. Death within 30 minutes. 6,400Headaches, dizziness, and nausea within 1-2 minutes. Death within minutes. 12,800Death within 1-3 minutes.

14 Toxins MATERIAL L.E.L.U.E.L.PELDENSITY % Volume (PPM)(Air=1.0) HYDROGEN SULFIDE4%44% Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S)  Explosive at low volume  Toxic at low volume  *Heavier than air (falls)  Initial “rotten egg” odor, but desensitizes sense of smell PPMEffect Mild eye irritation, mild respiratory irritation within 1 hour Severe eye irritation, severe respiratory irritation within 1 hour Unconsciousness or death within 1 hour. 1,000 or moreUnconsciousness or death within minutes.

15 So… why are we here? ANSWER = 1 death in US every 3 days!!!

16 Section 2 Entry Procedure

17 RULE #1 – Don’t enter unless absolutely necessary!! Entry Procedure

18 RULE #2 – Entry not allowed if “Hazardous Atmosphere” Entry Procedure

19  1) Complete & execute ENTRY PERMIT  2) Set-up TRAFFIC CONTROL for jobsite  3) Apply necessary LOCKOUT TAGOUT devices  4) Establish mechanical VENTILATION  5) Use GAS MONITOR to test atmosphere  6) Use FALL PROTECTION as required.  7) Use EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT as needed  8) Ensure JOBSITE SECURITY prior to leaving

20 Entry Permit  General Information  Authorized Personnel  Hazard Control  Hot Work Permitting  Required PPE  Monitoring Equipment  Monitoring Results  Authorization

21 Entry Permit  Completed before all manhole entries Regardless of how long entry will take Regardless of how long entry will take  Kept near entrance  Canceled by expiration date/time Maximum length allowed is 1 shift Maximum length allowed is 1 shift  Maintained for 1-year after cancellation

22 Traffic Control  Position vehicles to serve as barrier Between work zone and oncoming traffic Between work zone and oncoming traffic Turn wheel toward curb Turn wheel toward curb  Channel traffic with cones and signs Cone-off work areas (18” from equipment) Cone-off work areas (18” from equipment) Set-up advanced warning signs Set-up advanced warning signs Use flagmen or arrow boards Use flagmen or arrow boards

23 Lockout Tagout  Whenever there is a potential exposure to “hazardous energy” disengage the energy source and apply lock, tag & energy isolation devices prior to beginning work.

24 Lockout Tagout  Common pipeline “hazardous energy” sources Chemical Release Chemical Release Water Pressure Water Pressure Steam Build-Up Steam Build-Up  Other potential “hazardous energy” sources Electricity Electricity Moving Parts Moving Parts Air Pressure Air Pressure Stored Energy Stored Energy All usually controlled by valves

25 Lockout Tagout  Locking Devices Free from rust or damage Free from rust or damage Not used for other activities Not used for other activities Always accompanied by tag Always accompanied by tag Key only controlled by owner Key only controlled by owner Separate lock / tag for each worker Separate lock / tag for each worker  Tagging Devices Able to withstand environment Able to withstand environment Complete, legible & understandable Complete, legible & understandable Securely attached Securely attached  Energy Isolation Devices Designed for application Designed for application

26 Lockout Tagout  Application Procedure Prepare to shut-down equipment Prepare to shut-down equipment Notify individuals affected by shut-down and in area Notify individuals affected by shut-down and in area Perform normal shut-down Perform normal shut-down Disengage all hazardous energy sources Disengage all hazardous energy sources Apply locking, tagging & energy isolation devices Apply locking, tagging & energy isolation devices Verify success by attempting start-up (IMPORTANT!!!) Verify success by attempting start-up (IMPORTANT!!!)  Removal Procedure Notify individuals affected by shut-down and in area Notify individuals affected by shut-down and in area Remove devices (only by person who applied devices) Remove devices (only by person who applied devices) Restore power and conduct normal start-up Restore power and conduct normal start-up

27 Ventilation  Continuously in sewer or if hot-work done  Ensure ventilated air is clean Nearby vehicles off Nearby vehicles off Exhaust downwind Exhaust downwind Intake vent 5’ from entrance Intake vent 5’ from entrance

28 Ventilation  Tips for effective ventilation: Use blower with adequate capacity Use blower with adequate capacity Place outgoing vent 2’ from bottom of space Place outgoing vent 2’ from bottom of space Open lid downstream when possible Open lid downstream when possible Place additional ventilation at downstream lid Place additional ventilation at downstream lid Allow enough time to completely purge space Allow enough time to completely purge space Cubic Feet of Pipe / CFM of Blower = Minutes to WaitCubic Feet of Pipe / CFM of Blower = Minutes to Wait

29 Gas Monitors  Monitors must be “four-gas” type May need to supplement in unique situations May need to supplement in unique situations  Use as recommended Turn on in safe atmosphere Turn on in safe atmosphere Ensure unit “zeros-out” Ensure unit “zeros-out” Do not adjust settings Do not adjust settings Store in approved cases Store in approved cases Calibrate as required (documented) Calibrate as required (documented)  Conduct testing as follows: Outside of lid before removing Outside of lid before removing Top, middle & bottom of space 30 sec. each Top, middle & bottom of space 30 sec. each Continuously in sewer or if hot-work done Continuously in sewer or if hot-work done Carry on body if detach harness from cable Carry on body if detach harness from cable Methane CO H2SH2S

30 Fall Protection  Mechanical retrieval device used when > 5’ “Miller Intruder” “Miller Intruder” Tripod w/ Winch Tripod w/ Winch  Winches used and maintained properly Used for intended load (personnel vs. material) Used for intended load (personnel vs. material) Inspected annually or after shock-loaded Inspected annually or after shock-loaded  Ladder used at each entrance/exit Single rung ladder Single rung ladder Manhole cleats Manhole cleats

31  Respect the danger of falling into a manhole. Two employees fall to their death every day in the US. Two employees fall to their death every day in the US. Many of these falls are from 6’ or less! Many of these falls are from 6’ or less! Most of our manholes are over 6’ and up to 40’ deep. Most of our manholes are over 6’ and up to 40’ deep.  Inspect fall protection equipment before each use. No dents or physical damage to retrieval device. No dents or physical damage to retrieval device. Winch cable not damaged, winds smoothly, able to be converted to crank, and prevents free fall. Winch cable not damaged, winds smoothly, able to be converted to crank, and prevents free fall. No frays to body harness and all buckles functional. No frays to body harness and all buckles functional. Fall Protection

32  Ensure proper assembly of retrieval device. All pins inserted into slots. All pins inserted into slots. Placed on even/stable foundation. Placed on even/stable foundation.  Store equipment in way to prevent damage. Store components in secure location. Store components in secure location. Avoid stacking other items on retrieval device. Avoid stacking other items on retrieval device.  Ensure proper wear of body harness. Straps securely placed over shoulders and between legs. Straps securely placed over shoulders and between legs. Buckles secure, but straps not cutting off circulation. Buckles secure, but straps not cutting off circulation. Double-action hook locked onto d-ring on back. Double-action hook locked onto d-ring on back.

33  The following equipment shall also be onsite: First-aid kit First-aid kit Fire extinguisher (manned if hot work done) Fire extinguisher (manned if hot work done) If operations require traveling down pipe: If operations require traveling down pipe: Emergency rescue cartEmergency rescue cart Respiratory ProtectionRespiratory Protection Emergency Equipment

34 Jobsite Security  Manholes securely placed  Street damage covered  Open trenches barricaded  Housekeeping good / tools picked-up

35 Section 3 Entry Team

36 Team Members  Entry Supervisor  Authorized Attendant  Authorized Entrant

37 Supervisor Duties  Communicate with owner prior to entry  Be present at jobsite throughout entry  Authorize & ensure execution of permit  Assist with identifying & controlling hazards Cut, block or reroute lines Cut, block or reroute lines Block and bleed pipe Block and bleed pipe Disconnect drive mechanisms Disconnect drive mechanisms Open, purge & ventilate pipe Open, purge & ventilate pipe Remove dangerous animals Remove dangerous animals Prescribe PPE Prescribe PPE

38 Attendant Duties  Ensure only authorized entry  Take head count during entry  Stay alert & near entrance  Frequently communicate with all entrants  Monitor for behavioral changes Noticeable Confusion Noticeable Confusion Increased Irritability Increased Irritability Lack of Coordination Lack of Coordination Slurred Speech Slurred Speech Vomiting, Coughing, Wheezing Vomiting, Coughing, Wheezing

39  Monitor hazards inside & outside space  Observe & enforce no smoking policy  Initiate evacuation when: Permit Violated Permit Violated Gas Monitor Alarms Gas Monitor Alarms Behavioral Changes Noticed Behavioral Changes Noticed Conditions Change that Endanger Entrants Conditions Change that Endanger Entrants Attendant Must Leave Position Attendant Must Leave Position  Perform rescue if necessary Attendant Duties

40 Entrant Duties  Wear prescribed PPE  Communicate with Attendant  Monitor body for symptoms  IMMEDIATELY evacuate when: Symptoms noticed Symptoms noticed Gas monitor alarms Gas monitor alarms Attendant orders evacuation Attendant orders evacuation New hazard introduced New hazard introduced

41 Section 4 Rescue Procedures

42  Miller Pipeline’s rescue procedures: Primary = “self-rescue” Primary = “self-rescue” Secondary = “winch rescue” Secondary = “winch rescue” Last Resort = “man entry rescue” Last Resort = “man entry rescue”  Rescue procedures practiced annually  Attendants first-aid/CPR trained

43 Rescue Procedures  1) If evacuation required: entrants must immediately evacuate; entrants must immediately evacuate; notify the attendant on way out; notify the attendant on way out; and then notify fellow entrants on way out. and then notify fellow entrants on way out.  2) If harness detached from cable and potential for atmosphere to become imminently dangerous: atmosphere to become imminently dangerous: entrants must carry and use an escape respirator. entrants must carry and use an escape respirator.  3) If entrants cannot self-evacuate, the Attendant must: convert the winch and remove entrant with crank; convert the winch and remove entrant with crank; and administer medical treatment until paramedics arrive. and administer medical treatment until paramedics arrive.

44 Rescue Procedures  4) If man entry rescue must be performed: find replacement Attendant and have them call 911; find replacement Attendant and have them call 911; put on all PPE worn by Entrants + respirator (if necessary); put on all PPE worn by Entrants + respirator (if necessary); attach cable to harness; attach cable to harness; take rescue cart if entrants are located inside pipe; take rescue cart if entrants are located inside pipe; remove entrants from space; remove entrants from space; and administer medical treatment until paramedics arrive. and administer medical treatment until paramedics arrive.

45 Rescue Procedures Approximately 36% of all confined space fatalities are would-be rescuers who don’t follow procedures!!

46 Section 5 Conclusion & Test

47 Conclusion  FACT = Someone dies in a confined space every 3 days! Confined spaces are “silent killers”… RESPECT CONFINED SPACES!  FACT = 66% of confined space fatalities happen to sewer workers! It is the people in our industry that keep dying… IT CAN HAPPEN TO YOU!  FACT = When employees short-cut safety procedures, the probability of serious injury or death increases drastically. Procedures are established for a reason… FOLLOW PROCEDURES!

48 Test  25 Questions (True / False)  Passing Score = 84% (21 of 25)  May NOT Use Book or Neighbor!!! Good Luck!!!


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