Presentation on theme: "Corporate Universities - Opportunity or Threat? Keith Patching Cranfield School of Management."— Presentation transcript:
Corporate Universities - Opportunity or Threat? Keith Patching Cranfield School of Management
Agenda The Corporate University challenge Where are we/they now? Building mutuality Issues we need to address Conclusions/actions - where do we go from here?
An analogy - The Information Centre Mid 1980s - IT is the future ‘End user computing’ (euc) - releasing creativity The Information Centre - ‘shrine’ for euc Set up and run by internal IT people Publicity, visibility, promise Dead within 5-7 years Focus on IC not on outcomes/benefits from euc Lessons we can learn?
The difference? - The Corporate University Late 1990s - Learning is the future ‘The Learning Organisation’ - releasing creativity The Corporate University - ‘shrine’ for ‘learning’ Set up and run by internal HR people Publicity, visibility, promise Dead within 5-7 years?? Focus on CU not on outcomes/benefits from learning Lessons we can learn?
The assumed model Go ahead teach me…. The “teach me” assumption Assuming a one-way street / right answer model Reluctance to let go and join in the learning
The Basic Grid Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High
Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Broad Aims Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage by changing the styles and skills of managers Experimentation and innovation in management by learning new behaviours of various kinds Defending business position by increasing internal management effectiveness in core competences specific to business/industry Increased efficiency through increased skills and abilities in general management
Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Driving Forces Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Management vision Corporate strategy Key business goals Desire for “culture change” Breaking down paradigms Desire for new models and concepts Need for more “business”, “innovative” or “entrepreneurial” thinking Challenge the norm Business consolidation Integration of processes, practices and behaviours Need for common attitudes (e.g. “Quality”) Specific competences to focus on core activities Need for greater efficiency in management Higher productivity and control
Organisational and individual learning Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic The organisation learning about change vision new opportunities and behaviours Individuals learning about new ways of thinking/doing, but with no specific goal in mind Individuals learning about the organisation Individuals learning about systems and methods for management in general
Typical kinds of programme Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Tailored and linked to specific corporate direction and initiatives Focused on key individuals likely to make strategy happen “Culture change” programmes Senior executive workshops Almost anything, including: Outward bound T-Group/encounter group “Cross-cultural exchanges” Standardised, tailored Open to most managers at appropriate level Proven methods and models Induction programmes and other “Rites of Passage” General management programmes Open learning where appropriate
Broad strategies Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Top-down planning linking programmes to business strategy via CSF analysis, etc. Senior management- driven involvement Individual or departmental search for exciting new activities No specific need for planning or co-ordination Working in small groups with the very latest ideas in management development Planned and managed as part of HR and other strategies HR department as focal point Funds-led with appropriate % age of turnover devoted to purchase of cost-effective methods of skill transfer
Specifying the Activities Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Value is split between the activity itself and the development of ‘ideal’ models Suppliers as consultants Links to other activities modified as procedures change to fit the future strategy No specification at all: High risk but potential reward Links to other initiatives discovered as part of activity Detailed specification and intimate knowledge of organisation required On-the -job links Links with other existing procedures Less detailed specification - rely on suppliers to help identify areas of need and how to meet them Filling in the knowledge/skills gaps
Sources of supply Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Leading business schools High calibre consultants Universities and polytechnics “Fringe” consultancies Behavioural psychologists Seminar/Conferences etc. In-house training dept. Business schools/consultants as subcontractors to HR On-the job mentoring Training establishments Cheaper consultants and business schools Open university/distance learning organisations “Teach yourself” methods In-house training/mentoring
Our potential roles - and CUs’ focus Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Taking an external, leading-edge approach to transformational change Working as partners ‘Experimental’ and challenging new ways of developing senior people Watching and learning what might work ‘back home’ Consulting on curriculum design, etc. Taking the lead in maintaining links to other aspects of corporate strategy Broad portfolio of open programmes - providing the mix Sourcing the most cost effective approaches for each requirement
Key issues for us: Broad views on scoping and curriculum design Developing an evaluation strategy
Outcomes - oriented aims From Learning Aims Program Objectives Current situationProgram objectives Current situationDesired situationGAP To
Management development value chain O r g a n i s a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t C h a n g e P r o g r a m m e I n t e r v e n t i o n O u t c o m e s I n t e r v e n t i o n D e s i g n Depth of relationship/outcomes value added Time Intervention * Point of entry determines scope of impact/share of responsibility for change Points of entry * Point of entry determines scope of evaluation Points of evaluation
Management development components M M otivation - what’s the point, what’s in it for me? U U nlearning - surfacing previously held assumptions/paradigms S S kills, knowledge, attitudes - the focus of what needs to be done differently I I mplementation - transfer of learning C C ontinuous improvement - ongoing application of learning
The ‘Extended’ Grid Chan ge Specificity to the Organisation Low High Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Consolidati on Motivatin g Unlearni ng Implementin g Skills (learning )
Measures/evaluation - bases Degree of organisational change Specificity to the Organisation Low High Transformati onal Exploratory Specific capabilities Generic Achievement or movement towards KPIs as drawn up from CSFs Changes in procedures, systems, language, behaviour A “new culture” New ideas tested/proven “Bootlegging” activities Unexpected behaviours Challenges to status quo Common language and behaviour Problem avoidance Collaboration and co- operation across the business Measurable skills increase Efficiencies R.O.I.
The “learning diamond” UNDERSTANDING Models Tools Frameworks INTELLECTUAL PERSONAL ENGAGEMENT What am I going to do? Commitment Changing attitudes/ behaviours/ habits PERSONAL Brick wall - this is where most courses end KNOWLEDGE Checklist Examples Information FACTUAL Data Logic BELIEVING IN... Motivation Energy Enthusiasm Passion UNIVERSAL Emotions Ideas
Learning:Four elements Can ‘model’ situations where it’s needed & adapt rules to meet the unexpected Know how this fits with other tools & concepts into holistic framework Have internalised the behaviours into belief systems & values Want to make it work for self & for others Have the determination/ will/robustness to push aside barriers to implementation Know what to do when situation arises Know why it makes sense/works Can articulate evidence to ‘prove’ the efficacy of this way Have explored & challenged unconscious assumptions & habits preventing learning Can empathise with and care about others who are/will be impacted Have embedded into the unconscious the ‘new’ habits & will consciously do it every time Ideas, patterns, there-and-then possibilities, model-centred generalisations Affective, subjective, value-centred, right-brain, significant Cognitive, objective, intellectual, left-brain, logical Facts, taxonomies, here- and-now, realities, data-centred specifics
Using the Diamond 1. 1.Themes and Topics: what do they need to learn? 2. 2.Learning methods: how can we help them to learn this? 3. 3.Learner styles: how will individuals feel/respond to different elements? 4. 4.Tutor style: how are my colleagues and I going to approach all this?
Levels of inference 1. 1.Matters of measurable ‘fact’ :Held three team meetings in January 2. 2.Opinions/perceptions: The meetings were well-managed/a tedious waste of time 3. 3.Motives and beliefs: Does/not really buy into the leadership values
Influencing the types NT Making sense ST Proof Commitment ST Caring SF
The experiential learning journey Making (intellectual) sense of the experience - what are the lessons of (the) experience? Defining what, precisely, I am going to do differently (Action plan) Having an experience (which touches me personally/ emotionally) Wanting to learn from that experience
NT Wouldn’t it be interesting if…. ST Isn’t it interesting that... SF Isn’t it nice that... NF Wouldn’t it be nice if...
Understand the principles - focus on users/ business. Able to interpret situation by situation Know that the issue is perception more than the service itself The courage to try these new skills in a daunting situation Want to deal with the situation in the new way; believe in the need to meet users concerns/ wants
Tech-Test - mini case study 3-module program Pre program interviews AIMS AGENDA Clear aims, well- structured agenda fed into design Enthusiastic response from participants Competent and energetic tutor team Course evaluation 5 Very good
Tech-Test - follow up evaluation Phase 1 1.5 years on Projects All stopped bar 1 2 focus groups E F Momentum lost Focus group evaluation 4 5 GOOD Phase 2 2.5 years on We’re worse off than before - now we know how good we ought to be but can’t! Secret meetings - hostility & resentment Interviews and focus groups Downsized & demoralized
Some pitfalls in practice Influence of personality on perceived barriers to implementing learning: - usefulness of transition/ team - role models (J/P) - organisational commitment / support (INTJ, ESTJ) - review of personal strategies (I-TJ) only -manager as barrier (T/F) -lack of follow-up (E/I) etc. Impact of interviewer on interviewee’s perceptions Whoever asks the questions changes/ influences the answers Influence of tutors/ learners on style / depth of learning and impact Back to Tech-Test
OPIT - A sample public event “Organisational Politics and IT management” IMMEDIATE - One to one coaching - link to vision/values…. (relevance & purpose) FOLLOW-UPS - Three months: One day workshop - E-mail network - “Advanced” OPIT EVALUATION Relationships not “measures” What’s the problem Stereotyping as barriers Developmen tal goals for individuals
Design and Development Conceptual design Micro design Program Participant s Client Sponsor Manageme nt Developme nt Consultant Client Co-ordinator Faculty Team Choices
The Kirkpatrick model of evaluation (1959) Level Key questions Possible methods of evaluation 1. 1. Reaction &Did individual value the- Questionnaire planned action learning? Did learning- Individual interviews improve? What next? 2. 2. LearningDid individual learn - Paper & pencil test concepts, skills & - (pre & post) Performance tests behaviours?- Questionnaire 3. 3. BehaviourDid individual apply- Interview/Survey managers, what he/she learned peers, customers, staff on the job? (analyse feedback) 4. 4. BusinessDid individual & the - Follow-up questionnaire resultscompany experience - Interview/survey managers measurable benefit?- Collect anecdotes (evidence) - Track performance - Financial cost accounting 5. 5. UltimateHow do results affect- Evaluation of organisation value* or ROIthe organisation & the strategy individual over time?- Evaluation of career progress Investment vs ROI Participant evaluation Tests OJ Demos Expert research
Influencing the types NT Making sense ST Proof Commitment NF Caring SF
Establishing Rapport Ask questions Options Match, pace and lead 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions
How to influence NTs Patronising! Makes sense Waste of space Get to the point Clarity/ focus Your Credibility Detailed Low Simple High
A ‘map’ of directive and relationship behaviours Relations hip behaviour Directive Behaviour Learning Maturity Mutuality Warmth Respecting Withdrawing Encouraging Responding Recognising Supporting Sustaining Distancing CollaboratingResourcing HelpingPromptingSelling DirectingGuidingConsultingReleasing Participating High Low
The Lancaster Model Conceptualising Hypothesising Feedback Action REFLECTIONDISCOVERY Receipt of input INNER WORLDOUTER WORLD
Management Development Hierarchy of Needs Relevance - Understanding - Relating - Connecting - Believing in Credibility - Respect for tutors - Reputation of establishment - “Reality” of learning Interest - Enthusiasm - Entertainment - Excitement - Humour - Performance Basic Hygiene - Mobile phones and other distractions - Chairs, heating - Effective room layouts - Quality materials - effective use of media IMPACT - Making a difference - Long-term effectiveness - Permanent/beneficial change