Presentation on theme: "Intelligent Learning Developing Quality Talk"— Presentation transcript:
1 Intelligent Learning Developing Quality Talk Developing Quality Talk for Active MindsWebsite: Growthmindseteaz.orgGerry Miller& Angi Gibson
2 Good student questions enhance learning You are the students today, so your good questions will be valued!
3 EAZ teachers’ cross-phase network group meets four times a year Has been working for last 5 years to develop teaching & learning in our schools – using quality researchFocus on AfL & Carol Dweck’s Growth MindsetA key area of Shirley Clarke’s Learning Team (2007) was introducing Talk (or Learning) Partners and promoting Quality Talk in the classroomWe saw this as an important way of improving student engagement and allowing deeper understandingIntelligent Learning programme was chosen as a focus for this in , especially developing Quality Talk
4 Context: “Visible Learning”, 2009 by John Hattie (Professor of Education at the University of Auckland, NZ)In the past, the majority of innovations or strategies could be shown to “work” because students show improvement – but nearly all students show some improvementVisible learning is the result of 15 years’ research and synthesises over 800 meta-analyses (over 50,000 studies) relating to the influences on achievement in school-aged studentsIn a meta-analysis the effects in each study, where appropriate, are converted to a common measure (an effect size), such that the overall effects can be quantified, interpreted and comparedHattie uses these effect sizes to allow us to make a much more sophisticated judgment on what is really making an impact on student learning and achievement
5 Influences on student learning Reciprocal Teaching HomeworkPeer Tutoring Mastery LearningAbility Grouping QuestioningFeedback Aims & Policies of the SchoolTeacher-Student Relationships
6 Mastery Learning: Reciprocal Teaching: All children can learn when they focus on mastering tasks in a collaborative environment.Appropriate learning conditions in the classroom include:High levels of cooperation between classmates;Focused teacher feedback that is both frequent and diagnostic;Variable time allowed to reach levels of attainmentReciprocal Teaching:Students learn & use strategies such as summarizing, questioning, clarifying & predictingThese are supported through dialogue between teacher & students as they attempt to gain meaning from the textEach student takes a turn at being the teacher & often the teacher & students take turns leading a dialogue concerning sections of the textAims to help students actively bring meaning to the written word & assist them to monitor their learning and thinking
7 Influences on student learning Reciprocal Teaching Feedback Teacher-Student Relationship Mastery Learning Peer Tutoring Questioning Homework Aims & Policies of the School Ability Grouping
8 Influences on student learning John Hattie – research from 180,000 studies covering almost every method of innovationEffect SizeReciprocal TeachingFeedbackTeacher-Student Relationships 0.72Mastery LearningPeer TutoringQuestioningHomeworkAims & Policies of the School 0.24Ability Grouping
9 “The most powerful single influence enhancing achievement is feedback” Quality feedback is needed, not more feedbackMuch of the feedback provided by the teacher to the student is not valued and not acted onStudents with a Growth Mindset welcome feedback and are more likely to use it to improve their performanceThe most powerful feedback is provided from the student to the teacherExpert teachers constantly look for feedback from students and other teachers about their teachingQuality Dialogue in the classroom provides regular feedback for teachers
10 QuestioningSo much of class time is spent by teachers asking questions of their students (often questions per day – Brualdi, 1998), but usually these are not open, inquiry questions, they are “display questions” that the teacher knows the answer to and do not enhance understanding or thinking.Perhaps of more importance than teacher questioning is analysing the questions that students ask. Structuring class sessions to entice, teach and listen to students’ questioning of students is powerful (Hattie et al, 1998).
11 Why are student questions so important for good learning? Discuss in pairs for 2 minutes
12 Why are student questions so important for good learning? It engages them in the topic and builds on prior learningAllows them to relate the topic to personal experienceMakes them thinkEmpowers them to take control of their learningTeaches them to disagree intelligently
13 The Personal Nature of Learning “It is students themselves, in the end, who decide what students will learn” – Olson 2003“There are at least three worlds in the classroom”:The public world, which includes teacher-led discussion and work tasksThe private-social world of informal peer interactions, whispers & note-passingThe private-individual world of self-talk and thinkingThose students, regardless of prior ability, who used the classroom and its activities to further their own interests and purposes, learned more than those who dutifully did what they were told, but did not want or know how to create their own activities – Nuthall 2005Teacher does not control these two
14 Our aims to improve learning Students become more self-motivated (Growth Mindset)Less dependent on the teacher and more resilientMore quality talk enables students to make sense of the learningLess teacher interventionClassroom climate is more collaborativeTeacher gets more feedback from the students which helps her to improve teaching and learningLearning becomes more student-led and less teacher-led
15 Our Learning Journey Refining and developing Assessment for Learning Raising aspirations and improving resilience through Carol Dweck’s Growth Mindset*Using Talk Partners to discuss good learningDeveloping Quality Talk through Intelligent Learning*Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality & DevelopmentCarol S. Dweck (Psychology Press, 2000)
16 Self-Theories: Entity(Fixed) v Incremental(Growth) Carol Dweck - Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality and Development, Psychology Press, 1999Self-Theories: Entity(Fixed) v Incremental(Growth)MindsetAbout 40% of US students hold an incremental theory of abilitySlide 16
17 Self-Theories: Entity(Fixed) v Incremental(Growth) Carol Dweck - Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality and Development, Psychology Press, 1999Self-Theories: Entity(Fixed) v Incremental(Growth)MindsetAbout 40% of US students hold an entity theory of abilityEasy praise is not the answer - it makes the situation worseSlide 17
18 Incremental Learners – What does this mean to me? Researched based Teacher, became interested in Carol Dweck theories of Incremental Learners.I am a local, through education and training, as well as family support and encouragement I achieved my goals. However, the locality has changed as our data would demonstrate and pupils enter education with the belief that they are now ‘as good as it gets’. These low aspirations are encouraged within the family and so the myth perpetuates.I was born, raised and educated with New York. Through education and training, as well as family support and encouragement I achieved my goals. However, the locality has changed as our data would demonstrate and New York Primary is now recognised as being within a super output area of deprivation, with the highest percentage of NEETs recorded. Once pupils enter education they soon assume an attitude that they are as they are, and what we see is as good as it gets. These low aspirations are confirmed within the family often supported by anecdotes that Mother, Father, Brother and Sister were also ‘no good’ at School and so the myth perpetuates. This mindset must be challenged as the School faces a raising standards agenda.I joined New York Primary in September 2002 as a trainee GTP.
19 OFSTED 2002“The quality of teaching and learning is inconsistent. It varies from very good to unsatisfactory.“Curriculum planning and assessment strategies need to make sure that work builds on what children have already learnt”This was a very clear message that soon drove our school improvement and development plan. A strict and proactive focus was placed upon Teaching and Learning strategies used with the classroom. However, this resulted in the Teachers becoming performing seals and the children adopting a passive learning behaviour. We were then again visited by OFSTED in 2006.
20 OFSTED 2006“New York Primary School takes its pupils mainly from areas of high social and economic disadvantage. Almost half of its pupils are entitled to free school meals. The proportion of pupils with learning difficulties and/or physical difficulties is well above average.”“When children enter the Nursery, their communication and language skills and their social skills are well below average.”“Although many children join the School from difficult backgrounds and with challenging behaviour and attitudes, they soon settle into routines and expectations of the School. High standards in all areas are demanded from the outset and pupils soon acquire good behaviour and consideration for others.”Although pupils self-esteem wanes considerably as they continue through School and their belief in their own capabilities flags on reaching the end of Primary School, I have nothing but respect and admiration for my pupils. On entering Key Stage 2 they face increasingly challenging barriers to learning and impact from the home situation. However, it became clear that until some of these self worth and personal capacity issues were tackled, then success and achievement would remain out of their reach.
21 Pupil Aspirations (Then!) Me Mam says that homework is a waste of time, because I will never amount to anything!You’re just like your father – you’ll be locked up by the time your 16.No-one in our house can spell!I’m good at sport but nothing else in school.The Journey towards Self-Led LearningI began my journey by realising very quickly that there was NO one step method to success! I found that the best way to promote independent learners was through an amalgamation of various strategies, mainly assessment for learning coupled with Carol Dweck’s Growth Mindset theories. The Teachers were trained BUT now it was the children’s turn to become active learners.The techniques that I used to implement change were first and foremostBuilding Self Efficacy and Belief in Self AbilityReinforcing and encouraging Steps of learningCelebrating an awareness of Self RecognitionI never put my hand up in case I look thick!I’ve never been any good at maths!Slide 3
22 Techniques to Implement Change Positive self-narrative and visualisation.Increasing roles of responsibility within and around school through increasing the children’s sense of belonging (e.g. jobs – tuck shop, P.E. monitors, lunchtime monitors, office staff, recruitment board, school council) Modelling.Managing the moment of impulse – good questioning techniques etc,.Problem solving, mind mapping/templates, hierarchy of questions. Collecting facts before making judgements.Regular review, post analyse of work and emphasis on perfect practice.Building SelfEsteem & Beliefin Self AbilityTarget setting (SMART)Peer Teaching (Buddies)Meaningful praise – recognising how their learning was moving on.Recognising wrong answers as being a positive thing.The 5 R’s for learning (Alps) Resilience, Responsibility, resourcefulness, reasoning and reflectivity-reflexivityLess Teacher talk- more children's talkReinforcing andEncouragingStepsof LearningI began to record our Incremental learning journey into a checklist:-CelebrationSelf Recognition
23 Checklist of an Incremental Learning journey Goals setting through visualisationUse all data to target set for incremental improvementShare and negotiate the curriculum with childrenGive Parents’ knowledge of the curriculum (In Parents’ Speak)Share national curriculum targets with Children and ParentsSeparate the learning intention from the contextTeach skills of how to mark themselves – Success CriteriaUse posters and visual resources as aids for incremental learningCheck how familiar pupils are regularly (with content of posters)Practise realistic tests throughout the yearTalk about emotions during learning and testsSelf talk before testsCelebrate any successDue to the changes implemented, the children absolutely thrived upon the programme, their confidence and self belief was overwhelming, they were not scared of challenges any more, they were welcoming them! They were incremental learners! (Believing their intelligence is not fixed)The effect of this on their learning was phenomenal! The majority of my pupils were now totally tuned into learning, hungry for it even. They were now longer just content with finishing a piece of work, it had to challenge them. Their newly found learning goals and standards enabled them to think like an incremental learner.Their mindset is now:-
24 We are all Incremental Learners How Incremental Learners Think! I thrive on challengeI throw myself into difficult tasksI am self confidentI have learning goalsI like feedback on my performance so I can improveI react to failure by trying harderI engage in self-monitoringI can ignore the low aspirations of my peersI believe that intelligence is not fixedMy intelligence can be improved through learningWhat was truly amazing was the fact that I, the teacher, was seen as the last resort (instead of the first) that the children would approach for help. The first was now their buddy, then their table buddies, and finally the teaching and non-teaching staff. It freed us up tremendously!It gave us the time that we once never had, yet should have had, to guide and keep the pupils on track.
25 Self-Sufficient Students Children, particularly Year 6, were so driven by our new way of thinking and learning that they invented a way of sharing and celebrating their successes. They did this through creating for themselves a Self-Sufficient Student reward scheme which enabled them to celebrate their changing successes in becoming independent incremental learners with growth mindset.Their method of selection of Self Sufficient Student of the day is through a voting system, where all children and teachers participate in recognising the most successful student.Firstly they talk with their buddies (between 2 pupils) and recommend the student who they think should be awarded with reasons. They then discuss this within their table groups (up to 8 pupils) and debate the 2 names their table should put forward and why.Names are displayed on the board and the children who voted for them give the reasons for their choices to the rest of the class.The whole class vote upon which children should be allocated the award, based upon how their success in becoming an incremental learner has been proven.This programme has reached beyond the academic, with children expressing their views on what being an Incremental Learner means to them, and the impact that it has had on their life!
26 Pupil Aspirations (Now!) No-one in my family can or has, I’m going to be the first!I help my Dad, help me with my homework!I don't wait for the Teacher to tell me what to do – I’m in charge now.I still get stuck, but now I don’t stay stuck-I break it up into little bits.Good teaching and Assessment for Learning can only take children so far on their learning journey. Too often their main focus is on boosting attainment at the end of KS2 for SATS, without implementing any real change in the students’ self-belief and ability to learn for themselves. At New York Primary School there is a determination to build self-motivated learners, who can ask good questions and work together to find the answers.I love coming to School!I don’t hate maths anymore, I’ve got it!Slide 3
27 OFSTED 2010“Teaching is outstanding. Pupils thoroughly enjoy lessons and join in all activities with great enthusiasm. Both they and their teachers have an excellent knowledge of how well they are learning and how they can improve...”“Pupils’ enthusiasm for learning could not be stronger. In all lessons they tackle any challenge with energy and a strong belief that they will succeed. They make lessons buzz with excitement as they work in pairs and groups to meet the challenges their teachers set.”
28 OFSTED 2010“A strong feature of lessons is the collaboration between pupils, either as Talk Partners clarifying ideas, or team players working together to solve problems.”“The overwhelming strength of the school’s provision is the care, guidance and support it provides to enable pupils to overcome complex, and sometimes formidable, barriers to learning, so that they become successful learners who are happy at school.”The futureOur recent Ofsted confirms that our pupils now have the ability to talk about their learning with confidence. If they were able to sit exams orally, they would easily exceed our expectations. Our challenge now is to enable our pupils to transfer their oral confidence to high quality writing. One way that we will be doing this is by using Intelligent Learning throughout the school.
29 My Next ChallengeAs Carol Dweck says “successful individuals love learning, value effort and persist in the face of obstacles”.As Steve Williams says “Good thinking and dialogue involves turning the chaos of information and experience into meaning” and many of our children have the skills to do this.Our next step, is as Ros Wilson (Big Writing), says “Standards in writing are a direct result of standards of thought. If they can’t say it, they can’t write it. We need to use new vocabulary repeatedly if children are to retain it.” I am confident that Intelligent Learning will help our children transfer their good thinking into high quality writing, which will reflect their true potential.Intelligent Learning provided a natural extension of our work to promote more independent learning in our pupils. During our initial discussion, we asked the question: “How do we ensure a good balance between teaching for remembering and teaching to enable intelligent learning”. Our answer was: “By teaching the principles of Intelligent Learning, we empower our pupils to be more active learners, who will naturally absorb and remember more”.My Next ChallengeWorking through this programme with other teachers has enabled me to develop a clear idea of how to implement specific strategies of Intelligent Learning at New York Primary.As Carol Dweck says “successful individuals love learning, value effort and persist in the face of obstacles”. My vision is for all of our staff to have a deeper understanding of the Growth Mindset and Intelligent Learning so that we have a genuinely consistent approach to learner led learning that empowers our children to become self-sufficient.As Steve Williams says “Good thinking and dialogue involves turning the chaos of information and experience into meaning” and many of our children have the skills to do this. Our next step, is as Ros Wilson (Big Writing), says “Standards in writing are a direct result of standards of thought. If they can’t say it, they can’t write it. We need to use new vocabulary repeatedly if children are to retain it.” I am confident that Intelligent Learning will help our children transfer their good thinking into high quality writing, which will reflect their true potential.
30 What do we mean by Quality Talk? Intelligent Learners:Use questions consistently to further their thinking at every stage of learningOrganise their thinking by making connections using conceptsExplore their thinking through dialogue with othersUse exploratory dialogue as a model for their own thinking
31 Consider all the ways in your school, your department or your classroom that you try to help pupils become more independent learners. How do they relate, in any way, to the list of habits of intelligent learners? Discuss in pairs for 2 minutes
32 What is Intelligent Learning? Learning programme for teachers working together to refine classroom practiceAims to develop quality talk (by students) in the classroomBased on six 20 minute DVD programmes of teachers working with KS2/3 studentsWritten and presented by Steve Williams (Imaginative Minds):“we use the word intelligent, not to denote a superior or innate brain power, but the working of alert, active minds, capable of self-sustained reasoning and learning”
33 Intelligent Learning Prog 1 Discussion Question: What do students who can think and learn for themselves do that is different from those who can’t?Know how to ask good questionsMake connections using conceptsExplore thinking through dialogue with othersAble to explain their thinking by giving reasonsAble and willing to learn from other students
34 Play part of DVD programme 3 Some connecting conceptsSame differentReason conclusionImportant ordinaryCause consequenceFact opinionPrinciple evidenceExample counter-examplealternative