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The Roaring Twenties Mr. Miller Seward Middle School.

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1 The Roaring Twenties Mr. Miller Seward Middle School

2 The Roaring Twenties After World War I, the U.S. went into a short economic recession, but then things picked up again in the 1920s for many, but not all, people in the U.S. This “feel good” time was known as the “Roaring” Twenties… Overview/Preview – see movie next slide…


4 Textbook Overview Section 1: The Business of America: “Harding & the Return to Normalcy” Warren G. Harding became President and chose a pro-business Cabinet. Many (not all) in his cabinet were corrupt and there was much scandal Harding died suddenly in 1923.

5 Textbook Overview Section 1: The Business of America: “Coolidge Takes Over” Coolidge took a “hands off” appraoch to business. He was a believer in less government control on a lot of things such as crop prices, taking care of the poor, etc. This helped lead to business really booming as the 1920s continued.

6 Textbook Overview Section 1: The Business of America: “Technology Changes American Life” Americans had more $ to spend, so items like cars (when they were invented), vacuums, refrigerators, etc. were bought and sold (more $) The assembly line increased production of many products. People started borrowing $ and buying on “installment” plans and paying monthly. This did lead to more people in debt (remember for 1930s)

7 Moving to Section 2 What other aspects of society (other than business and the economy) changed or evolved (that’s whole other story) during the 1920s? Moving to Section 2…

8 Textbook Overview Section 2: Changes in Society: “Youth in the Roaring Twenties” Younger people started having more fun, going to college, etc. since the economy was doing better Women wore shorter dresses, shorter hair, and did “fun” stuff like go out on the town, etc. that the men got to do before The Charleston and other dances and songs went “big” The older generation did not like this “rebellious” movement Zoot Suit “Flapper”

9 Textbook Overview Section 2: Changes in Society: “New Roles for Women” Women gained the right to vote with the 19th amendment in 1920 & they went from there The strong economy and seeing how women worked for the men during WWI led to more job opportunities. Young women really started “stretching” their roles in society, while the older ones felt they weren’t being ladylike (known as “flappers”)

10 Women’s Roles Change Women’s role changed. Youthful “flappers” were much different from the stuffiness of the Victorian era. This video shows the “fun time” that many were having during these Roaring Twenties… Youtube clip on FlappersYoutube

11 Textbook Overview Section 2: Changes in Society: “Prohibition and Lawlessness” In 1920, the 18th amendment was passed, which outlawed the sale and manufacture of alcohol in the U.S. Many felt the government overstepped it’s bounds Most still drank, but either made their own, smuggled, or went to “speakeasies” This also led to the rise of organized crime (mafia) such as Al Capone, etc.

12 Prohibition This History Channel clip shows a good summary of the Prohibition movement. See History Channel Video “Speakeasies” segment Mr. Miller’s soapbox moment… This is not meant to glorify the use of alcohol in any way (you’re way too young) See U.S. News article highlights… Act accordingly…

13 Textbook Overview Section 2: Changes in Society: “Changes for African Americans” The Great Migration (WWI unit) led to many African-Americans moving to the north. Unfortunately, this led to a lot of racial tension and many riots, etc. The NAACP was formed to help protect rights, etc. with mixed results. Marcus Garvey led a movement by others to go back to Africa and leave USA Marcus Garvey

14 Textbook Overview Section 2: Changes in Society: “A Divided Society” Race wasn’t the only issue - there was a backlash against immigrants, urban vs. rural, religion vs. science and other issues Fundamentalists fought against the teaching of evolution in schools and the Scopes trial became a huge story. The Ku Klux Klan also had a resurgence in power, numbers, and influence. More on these topics… Charles Darwin John Scopes William Jennings Bryan

15 The Scopes “Monkey” Trial Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution holds that inherited characteristics of a population change over generations, which sometimes results in the rise of a new species. According to Darwin, the human species may have evolved from an ape-like species that lived long ago. Fundamentalists think this theory is against the biblical account of how God created humans and that teaching evolution undermine religious faith. Fundamentalists worked to pass laws preventing evolution being taught in schools, and several states did, including Tennessee in 1925. One group in Tennessee persuaded a young science teacher named John Scopes to violate the law, get arrested, and go to trial.

16 The Trial Scopes was represented by Clarence Darrow, and William Jennings Bryan, three-time candidate for president, represented the prosecution. John Scopes was obviously guilty, but the trial was about larger issues. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but Darrow never got a chance to appeal because the conviction was overturned due to a technical violation by the judge. The Tennessee law remained in place until the 1960s. See History Channel video on the trial

17 The Ku Klux Klan It originally started during the Reconstruction era after the Civil War It gained momentum during the 1920s They had around 5,000,000 members at one point They used this influence to intimidate (and much worse) African Americans (and Catholics, and immigrants, and Jews, and…) and try to influence politics with violence It lost influence later in the 20s Youtube clipYoutube

18 Moving to Section 3 So there were good and bad things going on in America during this time What about American’s leisure time? How did they fill it? Race relations were still bad… but a change was coming… What about the “lost” in between?

19 Textbook Overview Section 3: The Jazz Age & Harlem Renaissance: “More Leisure Time for Americans” Inventions, shorter working hours, and higher wages gave most (not all) Americans more time and $ to spend on leisure Movies, museums, sports, driving, etc. were popular events to be part of Some African-Americans, Hispanic Americans, etc. were “left out” of this prosperity

20 Textbook Overview Section 3: The Jazz Age & Harlem Renaissance: “Mass Media and Popular Culture” Radio became very popular for the first time, “connecting” many Americans to sports, shows, etc. (like we have with TV and now internet today) Movies and movie stars became very popular as well Movies were mostly silent in the early 20s, but then sound came along as well in The Jazz Singer Disney came onto the scene with the first Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie

21 Textbook Overview Section 3: The Jazz Age & Harlem Renaissance: “A Search for Heroes” Sports and sports stars became a big deal during the 1920s Babe Ruth & Ty Cobb in baseball Negro leagues in baseball started due to racism keeping them out of MLB Jack Dempsey & Gene Tunney in boxing Bobby Jones wins the Grand Slam in golf Helen Willis and Bill Tilden in tennis Other heroes: Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart for flying across the Atlantic Ocean

22 Textbook Overview Section 3: The Jazz Age & Harlem Renaissance: “The Harlem Renaissance” Many African Americans moved to New York City (and other northern cities) for work, escape, etc. The Harlem neighborhood of NYC was the world’s largest black community Jazz musicians, artists, writers, scholars, etc. that were African- American flocked to NYC and culture flourished there The “Renaissance” offered a new hope to African-Americans for their future in America. Famous jazz musicians Loius Armstrong and Duke Ellington Singer Bessie Smith was also popular. Youtube

23 Textbook Overview Section 3: The Jazz Age & Harlem Renaissance: “The Lost Generation” Some famous people lost hope for America (or the world?) during this time and left America for primarily Paris, France They became expatriates and chose to live in another country Writers Ernest Hemingway (A Farewell to Arms), F. Scott Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby), and Sinclair Lewis (Babbitt) were some famous ones who left They wrote about the negatives of the era such as Post-WWI despair, wealth gone wild, and material possession obsession in the middle class.

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